Addictive Behaviors 33 (2008) 1402–1408
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A further investigation of the relations of anxiety sensitivity to smoking motives
Susan R. Battista a, Sherry H. Stewart a,b, Christine Darredeau b, Dubravka Gavric a , Heather G. Fulton a, Dan Steeves c,
a b c
Department of Psychology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada Department of Psychiatry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada Addiction Prevention and Treatment Services, Capital District Health Authority, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
Keywords: Anxiety sensitivity Smoking motives Reasons For Smoking scale
Prior research has shown that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is associated with smoking to reduce negative affect (e.g., [Comeau, N., Stewart, S.H., & Loba, P., (2001). The relations of trait anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and sensation seeking to adolescents' motivations for alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Addictive Behaviors, 26, 803–825.]). However, given limitations in the measurement of smoking motives in previous AS studies, it has yet to be denitively established that AS is specically related to negative reinforcement smoking motives. Moreover, the overall AS construct is comprised of three lower-order components: physical, psychological, and social concerns (e.g., [Stewart, S.H., Taylor, S., & Baker, J.M., (1997). Gender differences in dimensions of anxiety sensitivity. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 11, 179–200.]). Previous investigations generally have not examined the relative contributions of each of these three AS components to smoking for negative reinforcement motives. The present study attempted to address each of these gaps in the literature. A sample of 119 smokers attending a tobacco intervention program (see [Mullane, J.C., Stewart, S.H., Rhyno, E., Steeves, D., Watt, M., & Eisner, A., (2008). Anxiety sensitivity and difculties with smoking cessation. In A.M. Columbus (Ed.), Advances in Psychological Research (vol. 54A, pp. 141–155). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.]) completed the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI; [Peterson, R.A., & Reiss, S., (1992). The Anxiety Sensitivity Index manual (2nd ed.). Worthington, OH: International Diagnostic Services.]) and the Reasons For Smoking scale (RFS; [Ikard, F.F., Green, D.E., & Horn, D., (1969). A scale to differentiate between types of smoking as related to the management of affect. International Journal of the Addictions, 4, 649–659.]) at pre- treatment. In a principal components analysis (PCA) of the RFS items, stringent parallel analysis supported a two-factor solution (negative and positive reinforcement smoking motives) as opposed to the intended six factors ([Ikard, F.F., Green, D.E., & Horn, D., (1969). A scale to differentiate between types of smoking as related to the management of affect. International Journal of the Addictions, 4, 649–659.]). ASI total scores were signicantly positively correlated with both RFS factors in bivariate correlational analyses. In partial correlations, the relation between the ASI and the RFS negative reinforcement factor remained signicant when controlling for RFS positive reinforcement smoking motives, but the correlation of ASI with RFS positive reinforcement motives was not signicant after controlling for RFS negative reinforcement motives. At the level of AS components, AS psychological concerns were related to both negative and positive reinforcement motives, while AS physical concerns were more strongly related to negative reinforcement motives. Implications for designing targeted tobacco interventions for high AS smokers are discussed.
© 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Corresponding author. Department of Psychology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 4J1. Fax: +1 902 494 3793.
E-mail address: email@example.com (S.H. Stewart).
0306-4603/$ – see front matter © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2008.06.016