S.R. Battista et al. / Addictive Behaviors 33 (2008) 1402–1408
may lead to adverse psychological consequences); and social concerns (i.e., beliefs that publicly noticeable anxiety symptoms may lead to adverse social consequences) (Stewart, Taylor & Baker 1997). Most past studies on AS and smoking motives have not examined the three components of AS separately, but rather, have used total ASI scores. Zvolensky, Bonn-Miller, Bernstein, and Marshall (2006) found a signicant positive relationship between AS physical and psychological concerns and smoking to reduce negative affect on the RFS. AS physical concerns also had a signicant, but theoretically unexpected, positive relationship with habitual smoking motives (cf. Leyro et al., 2008). There was no relation, however, between AS social concerns and any of the RFS smoking motives.
The primary goal of this study was to further examine the relationship between AS and various smoking motives. As a rst step, we wished to re-examine the factor structure of the RFS using a stringent factor extraction criterion, namely parallel analysis (Longman, Cota, Holden, & Fekken, 1989), to extract higher-order smoking motives factors. We chose to use the RFS because it has been widely used and its factor structure has been investigated previously, thus allowing direct comparisons of our results with past research. Consistent with previous studies, we expected two core smoking motive factors to emerge with their content corresponding to negative reinforcement and positive reinforcement smoking motives respectively. Then, we wished to examine the specicity of the relationship of AS to negative reinforcement smoking motives. We hypothesized that after accounting for the overlap between smoking motive factors, AS would be specically related to smoking for negative reinforcement reasons and unrelated to smoking for positive reinforcement reasons. Finally, we wished to explore the relationship between the three AS components and the negative and positive reinforcement smoking motives. We hypothesized that the AS physical and psychological concerns components would be signicantly positively related to the negative reinforcement smoking motive factor, while social concerns would not be related to negative reinforcement smoking motives. We did not expect any of the AS components to be signicantly related to positive reinforcement smoking motives.
One hundred and nineteen smokers (92 women; Mage
=42.7 years, SD=7.8) were recruited for this study. Race/ethnicity
information was not collected; however, the study was conducted in an area that is predominately Caucasian (Mullane et al., 2008). All participants were employees of a large Eastern Canadian health care organization who were taking part in a 4-week structured tobacco intervention program. Approximately half (51%) had a university or college-level education.
On average, participants reported smoking 19.4 (SD=6.5) cigarettes per day, began regular smoking at the age of 16.9 (SD=3.5) years, had been smoking for 26.2 (SD=8.4) years, and reported having made 2.8 (SD=2.2) serious quit attempts in the past. The participants' mean level of nicotine dependence, as assessed by the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND; Heatherton, Kozlowski, Frecker, & Fagerström, 1991), was 6.5 (SD=2.2), which is considered a “high” level of dependence according to Fagerström, Heatherton, and Kozlowski's (1990) classication system.
Demographics and smoking history
Participants provided general demographic information (e.g., age, gender, marital status, education) and completed the Smoking History Questionnaire (Zvolensky et al., 2005) to assess variables such as average number of cigarettes per day.
1.2.2. Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) The 6-item FTND (Heatherton et al., 1991) was used to determine participants' level of nicotine dependence. The FTND demonstrates adequate internal consistency and test–retest reliability (Pomerleau, Carton, Lutzke, Flessland, & Pomerleau,
Reasons for Smoking Scale (RFS)
The RFS (Ikard et al., 1969) is a 23-item questionnaire that assesses smoking motives. Participants indicate the extent to which they agree with statements pertaining to their reasons for smoking (e.g., “I nd cigarettes pleasurable”) using a 5-point Likert scale (1=Never, 5=Always). The original scales, as proposed by Ikard et al. (1969), are: negative affect reduction (6 items), addiction (5 items), habit (4 items), pleasurable relaxation (2 items), stimulation (3 items), and sensorimotor manipulation (3 items). Previous investigations of the RFS have indicated moderate test–retest reliability (Tate, Schmitz, & Stanton, 1991) and predictive validity when participants were asked to report their smoking motives using daily diaries (Tate & Stanton, 1990).
1.2.4. Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI)
The ASI (Peterson & Reiss, 1992) is a 16-item measure that assesses fear of arousal sensations based on beliefs that such sensations may lead to harmful physical, psychological, or social consequences. Participants rate the extent to which they agree with statements on a scale from 0 (Very Little) to 4 (Very Much). The ASI was scored both as a total score and as three subscale scores: physical (9 items), psychological (5 items) and social (2 items) concerns (see Stewart et al., 1997). The ASI has high internal consistency (α=.79–.90), adequate test–retest reliability (r=.70–.75), and strong validity as a measure of fear of anxiety and arousal (Peterson & Reiss, 1992).