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unexpected food. There is room for a high risk of waste of resources and for a lack of coherence.

Interdisciplinarity ca dishes, independently improve presentation

n be seen as a banquet where various people bring different selected by knowing what the others are not bringing. To and taste of the food, all dishes are entirely or partially

combined at the last minute to compose new courses. The outcome of the assemblage lies in the final work of composition, which is solely responsible for minimising waste

and maximising coherence.

Transdisciplinarity, meanwhile,

is like

a banquet where various



collectively decided in advance what to cook using the ingredients and the expertise available, and they bring many dishes prepared in collaboration. Nobody can tell to whom the various elements belong and who composed them: the team-work has to be


In the transdisciplinary

banquet there is an optimal use of resouces, as no dish is

partially utilized, or just left over. There is an optimal concordance of tastes, as a great amount of time is spent in conceiving the many dishes in advance exactly with a view to their integrated fruition. The team-members acquire new expertise through their interaction. They improve their capacity of listening. They learn that they can produce

a successful outcome, neither are they familiar they are not doing the together, getting the job

although they are not in possession of all the ingredients,

with all the entire job - done.

cooking procedures. their entire job -

They they

understand that, when are paradoxically, all

  • *



The metaphor of the banquet can be “trans-posed” to bring some light on the work of

a group of experts trying to address an more the different perspectives of multi-,

issue. inter-,

This exemplification and trans-disciplinary

elucidates once approaches.

In a multidisciplinary

approach, a series of experts belonging to different disciplines

are separately Although the information or

requested to prepare a dossier where experts are aware of each other, they meeting, to wholly address the issue by

an issue is globally tackled. try, without any exchange of using theories and methods of

their own disciplines. problem, without any

The outcome is a set of dossiers thoroughly

analyzing the









On the one hand, this approach is an improvement in respect to a mono-disciplinary one, as it does reveal multiple points of view.

On the other hand, by proposing a juxtaposition of different viewpoints, this approach leaves out the possibility of assembling the various perspectives in a sort of soundly- composed unique view.

This means that, by reading the dossiers, one would most likely run into all sorts of contradictory statements on the nature of the issue, on the possible ways of analyzing it, and on the possible solution(s) to be implemented. Basically there would easily be a great level of discordance on what is under study, on how to study it, on what are


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