Transdisciplinary response to the understand large framework of any
science (. .) is, by definition,
a collective enterprise,
need to use humankind’s and complex systems that single scientific discipline or
are not referable set of disciplines (.
arising in powers to intellectual
: a new idea
new idea in science for scientists to think explicitly reductionist.
? There have always been complex, about. However, the classical methods With this reductionism, we can learn
about the complex whole dis-assemble, fractionate, and
by separate studies of its confine our gaze. Experiments
artifice of holding constant other aspects Classical science assumes a lego-like world, parts. There is no expectation that the whole thesum of its parts (_ ).
of an otherwise complex real world. reducible to manageably researchable will behave other than recognisably as
In a world now beset by an array of largescale environmental and social problems, many scientists are becoming uneasy about the imbalance in science’s repertoire of conceptual approaches and research methods. There is a need for approaches that can trascend the limited horizons of existing disciplines and can look to wider horizons - thereby accommodating new dimensions of complexity, scale and uncertainty (. .).
modes of thought,
“soft-systems science”. analysis and assessment
Both (. .).
Ravetz and Funtowicz have described post-normal science as a way of breaking free of reductionist and mechanistic assumption about the way things relate and the way systems operate, (. .) and of the traditional expectation that science should deliver final precise estimates unshrouded by uncertainty (. ).
The point of the criticism is that some complex systems (. .) may not be reducible to
model specification exactitude (. .).
(. .) and that science should not aspire to uncertainty-free
Sofl system science recognises that, while orthodox science seeks to specify, objectify
human observers apply differing
constructs and perceptions to the
“objects” of science. These subjective dimensions are seen as legitimate part of a complex reality being addressed. Soft system science also questions the need for a hierarchical, disaggregatable, external reality, The world is understood to comprise complex systems, typically entailing holarchical relations (and not hierarchical and therefore disaggregatable relations).