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Transdisciplinary response to the understand large framework of any

science (. .) is, by definition,

a collective enterprise,

need to use humankind’s and complex systems that single scientific discipline or

knowledge

and analytic

are not referable set of disciplines (.

to .).

the

arising in powers to intellectual

Transdisciplinarity

: a new idea

?

Is transdisciplinarity

a

multi-faceted,

problems

of

western

science

are

new idea in science for scientists to think explicitly reductionist.

? There have always been complex, about. However, the classical methods With this reductionism, we can learn

about the complex whole dis-assemble, fractionate, and

by separate studies of its confine our gaze. Experiments

component

parts ;

we

thus

typically

entail

the

artifice of holding constant other aspects Classical science assumes a lego-like world, parts. There is no expectation that the whole thesum of its parts (_ ).

of an otherwise complex real world. reducible to manageably researchable will behave other than recognisably as

In a world now beset by an array of largescale environmental and social problems, many scientists are becoming uneasy about the imbalance in science’s repertoire of conceptual approaches and research methods. There is a need for approaches that can trascend the limited horizons of existing disciplines and can look to wider horizons - thereby accommodating new dimensions of complexity, scale and uncertainty (. .).

and

discussion

these

proffer

of

“post-normal

science”

and

of

non-traditional

modes of thought,

There

has

been

recent

advocacy

of

“soft-systems science”. analysis and assessment

Both (. .).

Ravetz and Funtowicz have described post-normal science as a way of breaking free of reductionist and mechanistic assumption about the way things relate and the way systems operate, (. .) and of the traditional expectation that science should deliver final precise estimates unshrouded by uncertainty (. ).

The point of the criticism is that some complex systems (. .) may not be reducible to

model specification exactitude (. .).

(. .) and that science should not aspire to uncertainty-free

Sofl system science recognises that, while orthodox science seeks to specify, objectify

and quantify,

human observers apply differing

constructs and perceptions to the

“objects” of science. These subjective dimensions are seen as legitimate part of a complex reality being addressed. Soft system science also questions the need for a hierarchical, disaggregatable, external reality, The world is understood to comprise complex systems, typically entailing holarchical relations (and not hierarchical and therefore disaggregatable relations).

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