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The models (. .) appear to be overly simplistic and invalid (. .). This was a case where thinking about a complex behavior was governed by and large by available mathematical techniques - which were capable of yielding precise solutions at the expense of reality (. .).

Another shortcoming is the assumption that because one has integrated across several fields, that is a sufficient integration for a complex problem. Often this is not the case (. .). Thus arises the question of sufficiency in transcending a few disciplines. The question can only be addressed relative to the problem context (. .).

Are the boundaries of the “real world” so large, that the quest for holism breaks down from information overload? I would hope not. Rather the concept of the “holon” put forth by Arthur Koestler, might offer a manageable approach. The holon concept is embedded in a hierarchy of systems, each element in the hierarchy, self contained and sustainable. In this conceptual scheme, one acknowledges the interplay of a host of factors, but focuses on those that are essential to the maintenance of the level of organization which constitutes the problem focus (. .).

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