Two major lessons emerge from knowledge studies. The first is
efforts have had greater impacts
than others, for example,
that while some even successful has enjoyed wide
influence as a theoretical framework, a conceptual approach in a particular fields, and a method of engineering practice. Despite its though, the broad unifying capacity of general systems tends to day-to-day practice (. .).
wide variety of wide influence, be splintered in
The second lesson is implied in the first. Transdisciplinary promise, but they have also succumbed to reductionism (_ .).
schemes have holistic
The ideological Any metaphor, be adequately
problem of transdisciplinarity
is laid bare in the problem of holism.
theme, theory, or conceptual scheme (. .) explained by reduction to the properties
implies a totality that cannot of its parts. Campaigns for
unified knowledge, metaphysical model holisms have proved
schemes, and holistic
that is an interrelated conception of the world. Ironically, contradictory both within and among themselves (. .).
Beyond knowledge studies, I have also participated in the work of two centers, the
Worldviews project and the Transdisciplinaires, CIRET (. ).
p r o j e c t ( . , ) s u p p o r t e d r e s e a r c h
(...), research on bridging
social sciences, and the arts, sciences, and philosophies
projects aimed at mathematics, the (. .).
integrating natural and
The [CIRET], headquartered in Paris, is a smaller Transdisciplinary
by the new worldview of connections in all areas culture, and the arts (. .).
complexity of study,
by modern science. It aims at religious studies, edukation,
The [CIRET] does not seek to create a new discipline or a new kind of specialist. It
aims, instead, to create a common all levels of education and a “locus”
“workspace” for for gathering a
transdisciplinary research across self-organizing group of teachers
and students who are “animated by transdisciplinary attitude” (. .).
the service of pressing
Many pressing societal issues call for transdisciplinary
research, problem-solving, example that illustrates
multiple both an
levels across organizational
and an epistemological
Transdisciplinarity (. ).
In the fields of child development and problems of the
approach connotes more systematic delivery of health care than