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Knowledge Studies

Two major lessons emerge from knowledge studies. The first is

transdisciplinary

efforts have had greater impacts

frameworks

encounter

limits.

General

systems

theory,

than others, for example,

that while some even successful has enjoyed wide

influence as a theoretical framework, a conceptual approach in a particular fields, and a method of engineering practice. Despite its though, the broad unifying capacity of general systems tends to day-to-day practice (. .).

wide variety of wide influence, be splintered in

The second lesson is implied in the first. Transdisciplinary promise, but they have also succumbed to reductionism (_ .).

schemes have holistic

The ideological Any metaphor, be adequately

problem of transdisciplinarity

is laid bare in the problem of holism.

theme, theory, or conceptual scheme (. .) explained by reduction to the properties

implies a totality that cannot of its parts. Campaigns for

unified knowledge, metaphysical model holisms have proved

transdisciplinary

schemes, and holistic

thought

promote

a

that is an interrelated conception of the world. Ironically, contradictory both within and among themselves (. .).

though,

Working Examples

Beyond knowledge studies, I have also participated in the work of two centers, the

Worldviews project and the Transdisciplinaires, CIRET (. ).

Centre

International

de Recherches

et Etudes

The Worldviews

p r o j e c t ( . , ) s u p p o r t e d r e s e a r c h

knowledge

(...), research on bridging

language and

social sciences, and the arts, sciences, and philosophies

projects aimed at mathematics, the (. .).

integrating natural and

The [CIRET], headquartered in Paris, is a smaller Transdisciplinary

project informed

by the new worldview of connections in all areas culture, and the arts (. .).

complexity of study,

furnished including

by modern science. It aims at religious studies, edukation,

creating science,

The [CIRET] does not seek to create a new discipline or a new kind of specialist. It

aims, instead, to create a common all levels of education and a “locus”

“workspace” for for gathering a

transdisciplinary research across self-organizing group of teachers

and students who are “animated by transdisciplinary attitude” (. .).

Transdisciplinnrity

in

the service of pressing

societal

issues

Many pressing societal issues call for transdisciplinary

education.

Health

care

is

a

particularly

compelling

research, problem-solving, example that illustrates

and the

multiple both an

levels across organizational

which transdisciplinarity

must

problem

and an epistemological

operate. problem

Transdisciplinarity (. ).

is

In the fields of child development and problems of the

handicapped

,

a

“transdisciplinary”

approach connotes more systematic delivery of health care than

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