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occurs in a “multidisciplinary” coordination of their expertise (.

juxtaposition ).

of specialists or “interdisciplinary”

A “transdisciplinary”

team participates in more thorough

[The team’s members] work assimilate their knowledge and

together, rather than perspectives (. ,),

in

assimilation a sequential

of knowledge. separation, to

Because

institutional

In daily

work, the

arrangements differ, understandings of various meanings and arrangements

interdisciplinarity differ. have to be continually

informal reconstituted through negotiations. m Work beyond single disciplines, o r e o v e r , i s a l w a y s a s i t u a t e d e n d e a v o r . B r o a d k n o w l e d g e i s n e c e s s a r y , b u t i t m u s t be contextualized in the local dynamics of practice (, ).

The epistemological

problem

of

between a discipline-based biopsychosocial model (.

).

concept

transdisciplinarity of disease and what

centers is often

on the called a

discrepancy biosocial or

A

transdisciplinary

model

operates

across,

as

it

encompasses,

[many]

levels.

The

human being is perceived to be an interacting, integrated whole (_ .),

[The] analysis of instrumental bridges

the of

medical specialist

curriculum knowledges

underscores the difference and a more transdisciplinary,

between critically

grounded conceptualization of the medical sciences (, .). Any valid therapeutics must be based in a holistic view of the patient (. .).

When interdisciplinarity been in many research is conceived as a short-term solution centers focused on social and economic to problems, as it has p r o b l e m s , q u e s t i o n s o f of reliability, transdisciplinary epistemology are replaced by the pragmatics

efficiency

,

and commercial value. An epistemologically

creative and critical stance

towards

disciplinarity

comprehensive

map

of

and professionalism knowledge (. .).

holds out the promise

of a more

Optional Insights

Michael Gibbons et al. put forward a new theory Production of Knowledge)) they contend that the contemporary societies have changed. [Beside]

of transdisciplinarity. dynamics of science the traditional form

In and of

((The New research in knowledge

production [there is

technological,

and

a new one] characterized by closer

industrial

modes

of

knowledge

interaction production.

among scientific, As such, it is

nonhierarchical, forms (. .).

transdisciplinary,

and characterized by heterogeneously organized

[It] has several consequences that are relevant to any transdisciplinary project. Human resources are more mobile, and the organization of research is more open and flexible, Sites of knowledge production have also increased in number and in kind (. ,),

Collapse of monopoly

power accompanies diversification,

As the organizational

boundaries of control

blur

,

the underlying

notion of competence is redefined.

Resources, knowledge, and skills are being ceaselessly reconfigured

(. .). Sites of

knowledge production and their networks of communication move on, creating a web that reaches across the globe in growing density and connectivity (. .).

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