occurs in a “multidisciplinary” coordination of their expertise (.
of specialists or “interdisciplinary”
team participates in more thorough
[The team’s members] work assimilate their knowledge and
together, rather than perspectives (. ,),
assimilation a sequential
of knowledge. separation, to
arrangements differ, understandings of various meanings and arrangements
interdisciplinarity differ. have to be continually
informal reconstituted through negotiations. m Work beyond single disciplines, o r e o v e r , i s a l w a y s a “ s i t u a t e d e n d e a v o r ” . B r o a d k n o w l e d g e i s n e c e s s a r y , b u t i t m u s t be contextualized in the local dynamics of practice (, ).
between a discipline-based biopsychosocial model (.
transdisciplinarity of disease and what
centers is often
on the called a
discrepancy biosocial or
human being is perceived to be an interacting, integrated whole (_ .),
[The] analysis of instrumental bridges
underscores the difference and a more transdisciplinary,
grounded conceptualization of the medical sciences (, .). Any valid therapeutics must be based in a holistic view of the patient (. .).
When interdisciplinarity been in many research is conceived as a short-term solution centers focused on social and economic to problems, as it has p r o b l e m s , q u e s t i o n s o f of reliability, transdisciplinary epistemology are replaced by the pragmatics
and commercial value. An epistemologically
creative and critical stance
and professionalism knowledge (. .).
holds out the promise
of a more
Michael Gibbons et al. put forward a new theory Production of Knowledge)) they contend that the contemporary societies have changed. [Beside]
of transdisciplinarity. dynamics of science the traditional form
In and of
((The New research in knowledge
production [there is
a new one] characterized by closer
among scientific, As such, it is
nonhierarchical, forms (. .).
and characterized by heterogeneously organized
[It] has several consequences that are relevant to any transdisciplinary project. Human resources are more mobile, and the organization of research is more open and flexible, Sites of knowledge production have also increased in number and in kind (. ,),
Collapse of monopoly
power accompanies diversification,
As the organizational
boundaries of control
notion of competence is redefined.
Resources, knowledge, and skills are being ceaselessly reconfigured
(. .). Sites of
knowledge production and their networks of communication move on, creating a web that reaches across the globe in growing density and connectivity (. .).