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In most other employment categories outside of agriculture, the census also estimated a larger employed population for the latter months of the year 2000 than did enterprise data compiled by the Labor Ministry and the NBS. This may mean that the census detected millions of workers that the administrative reporting system is regularly missing. (See table 3.) For example, in services, the annual reporting system seems to be leaving out millions of workers, perhaps because many service workers are in the informal economy. By contrast, the regular administrative reporting system recorded more workers than the census did in construction, in transport, in the small categories of geological prospecting and water conservancy, and in research and technical services. The annual system also reported 56 million people at yearend 2000 in the category of other unclassified workers, while the census was able to classify most workers into one of its standard employment categories. (See table 3.) Some of these “other” workers may in fact work in two parts of the economy, such as agriculture during peak seasons and manufacturing during another, or even the same, part of the year.

The discrepancy between census and enterprise data on the number of manufacturing workers in China was not large in the year 2000, at least if census data are compared with the total employment figures by sector compiled by China’s Labor Ministry and the NBS and reported in table 3. The two data sets are as close together as they are because the census also likely undercounted rural manufacturing workers. (See later.) The census estimated 88.43 million persons employed in manufacturing during the last week of October 2000. On the basis of the national employment totals published by the NBS and the Labor Ministry, economic units reported that employment in manufacturing totaled 80.43 million at yearend 2000. 28

What can account for this discrepancy of 8 million manufacturing workers between census data and the officially compiled enterprise data? First, the census counted each part-time worker as an employed worker. Anyone who worked more than 1 hour for pay in the week before the census was counted as one employed worker. Of manufacturing workers counted in the census, 3 percent worked fewer than 4 days in the previous week, and 97 percent worked full time or overtime. More specifically, 39 percent of manufacturing employees worked for income 4 or 5 days in the previous week, and 58 percent worked 6 or 7 days during the 7 days before the census.29 It is possible that annually reported employment figures tend to neglect those who work less than full time. Therefore, part-time manufacturing workers might explain some of the discrepancy-

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    no more than 2 to 3 million--between the census-based estimate of manufacturing

workers in late 2000 and the official NBS-Labor Ministry compilation of yearend-2000 enterprise data on manufacturing employees.

Temporary workers in manufacturing who happened to be at work during the last week of October 2000 would have, or at least should have, been reported by the census as employed in manufacturing. Annual enterprise data also capture some temporary workers. For example, it was reported that, within the category of on-post urban manufacturing staff and workers in state-owned enterprises in 2002, 9.31 million (95 percent) of 9.79 million were in long-term manufacturing employment, while 0.47

million (5 percent) were in temporary manufacturing employment.30

However, long-term

or temporary status is reported only for this 10 million of China’s reported total of 83 million on-post manufacturing workers in 2002. The annual enterprise reporting system classifies all urban on-post employees as either “long-term,” defined as having been


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