Noncity manufacturing labor compensation. Much more data collection and analytical research are needed to fill in some of the missing information on rural and town manufacturing earnings and total compensation.
Labor force surveys. China needs to design, carry out, and publish results of labor force surveys using international standards and definitions. Such surveys should cover the whole country and should collect and publish data on earnings and total compensation. China reportedly will begin a regular labor force survey in 2006, the results of which will subsequently be published.
1 See Jeffrey R. Taylor and Judith Banister, Statistical Reliability in China (U.S. Census Bureau, 1989).
2 Carsten A. Holz, The Institutional Arrangements for the Production of Statistics, Statistics Directorate, OECD-China Governance Project. OECD Statistics Working Paper STD/DOC(2005), 1 (Paris, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2005), p. 5.
3 See “Ministries” in the “Glossary and Definitions” section of the Appendix for a list of the ministries involved in the collection and reporting of manufacturing employment in China.
4 For relevant Chinese language terms, see “actual situation,” “labor situation,” and “yearend number of workers” which are defined in the “Glossary and Definitions” section of the Appendix.
5 Copies of the enterprise statistical reporting form (laodong qingkuang biao, or “labor situation form”) for 2004 were submitted to urban authorities by the end of February 2004 and reported 2003 data for urban companies and work units; wage- reporting instructions (laodong gongzi--tongji taizhang, or “labor wages--statistical accounts”) for 2004 were from the Beijing Municipality Statistical Bureau. (See especially p. 2-1 of the latter.)
6 The TVE’s were originally established as collective economic units run by local governments in rural areas and towns. The purpose of TVE’s was, and still is, to employ small farmers and rural laborers in industrial or service occupations in locations not far from their family homes. This practice allows the modernization of China’s vast countryside without necessitating massive migration from villages to cities. In the 1980s, and especially from the 1990s to today, TVE’s shifted from public toward private ownership, and many foreign-funded enterprises became classified as TVE’s. Now the TVE category, in addition to encompassing small local enterprises, can include very large factories in industrial parks outside cities, as well as suburban, town, and rural factories. Indeed, companies have incentives to have their factories classified as TVE’s because mandatory social insurance payments are very low, statistical reporting requirements are