85 Knight and Xue, “How high is urban unemployment in China?”, p. 18; Knight and Yueh, “Urban insiders versus rural outsiders.”
Forney, “Tug-of war over trade,” p. 34.
87 Ben Dolven, “Take our workers, please,” Far Eastern Economic Review (Hong Kong), Feb. 27, 2003, pp. 24-26.
88 For manufacturing productivity trends in the advanced industrial countries, see International Comparisons of Manufacturing Productivity and Unit Labor Cost Trends, Revised Data for 2003 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, Feb. 25, 2005), on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/prod4.pdf; and International Comparisons of Manufacturing Productivity and Unit Labor Cost Trends, Supplementary Tables (Bureau of Labor Statistics, Feb. 25, 2005), on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/fls/prodsupptabletoc.htm.
89 Comparative Civilian Labor Force Statistics, Ten Countries, 1960-2004 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 13, 2005), Table 6; on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/fls/flslforc.pdf.
90 Fang Cai, Albert Park, and Yaohui Zhao, “The Chinese labor market,” paper presented at the Conference on China’s Economic Transition: Origins, Mechanisms, and Consequences, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Nov. 2004, p. 17.
China Village and Town Enterprise Yearbook 2003; data were for 2002.
“China, no right to work,” Economist, pp. 27-28.
93 Most of the foregoing section of this report was published separately as “Manufacturing employment in China,” in the July 2005 Monthly Labor Review (pp. 11- 29), on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/fls/#publications.
94 As discussed in the foregoing section of this report, China’s official statistics reported 83 million manufacturing employees at yearend 2002, but a variety of other available statistics strongly indicated that the actual number was more than 100 million.
95 China’s official statistics reported 38 million city manufacturing employees as of yearend 2002. Data on earnings are not available for 8.2 million manufacturing workers in the cities; of these workers, 2.6 million are self-employed. The Bureau of Labor Statistics does not include the self-employed in its comparative estimates of hourly compensation costs, which relate to paid production workers only. China’s data cover both production workers and nonproduction employees.
See note 6 above for historical and current information about TVE’s in China.