97 International Comparisons of Hourly Compensation Costs for Production Workers in Manufacturing (Bureau of Labor Statistics), on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/news.release/ichcc.toc.htm.
98 See the first section of this report on “Manufacturing employment in China” for further background information about China’s statistical system.
99 Examples are available of statistical reporting forms and instructions issued to city enterprises to use to report employment and earnings data for the calendar year 2003. A “labor situation form” [Laodong qingkuang biao] was to be submitted to authorities by the end of February 2004. Wage-reporting instructions were in the publication Laodong gongzi; tongji taizhang [Labor wages; statistical accounts] (Beijing, Beijing Municipality Statistical Bureau, 2004), especially p. 2-1.
China Statistical Yearbook 2003, pp. 66, 84, 87, 90.
101 China Labor Statistical Yearbook, published annually; China Village and Town Enterprise Yearbook 2003, pp. 130-31.
China Labor Statistical Yearbook 2003, pp. 630, 638.
103 Chinese sources did not report earnings data for another 8 million urban manufacturing employees: self-employed individual manufacturing workers and the investors and workers in relatively small private manufacturing concerns. It is not known whether this group of city manufacturing employees earns more or less than the “manufacturing employees in urban units.” However, some of the employers of these 8 million workers pay lower social insurance payments or none at all to city governments.
China Village and Town Enterprise Yearbook 2003, pp. 130-31.
Wage-reporting instructions, 2004, p. 2-4.
106 See BLS Handbook of Methods (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1997), Chapter 12, “Foreign labor statistics,” pp. 114-15; and Chris Sparks, Theo Bikoi, and Lisa Moglia, “A perspective on U.S. and foreign compensation costs in manufacturing,” Monthly Labor Review, June 2002, pp. 36-50, especially p. 49.
Sparks, Bikoi, and Moglia, “U.S. and foreign compensation costs,” p. 49.
108 Xiaochun Qiao, China’s Aging and Social Security of the Elderly: With Reference to Japan’s Experiences, Japan External Trade Organization, IDE-JETRO Visiting Research Fellow Monograph Series No. 388 (Chiba, Japan, Institute of Developing Economies, 2004).