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109 Shehui baoxianfei zheng jiao zanxing tiaoli” (“Provisional regulations for payment of social insurance fees”), in Laodong he shehui baoxian zhengce xuanchuan cailiao (Materials on Social Insurance Policy Announcements), Beijing, Haidian District Labor and Social Security Office, Regulation number 259, promulgated Jan. 22, 1999.

110

Wage-reporting instructions, p. 2-5.

111 BLS Handbook, pp. 114-15; Sparks, Bikoi, and Moglia, “U.S. and foreign compensation costs,” p. 37.

112 All data in this paragraph are from China Ministry of Labor, Zhongguo laodongli shichang gongzi zhidao jiawei (2003 nian) [China Labor Force Market Wage Guide 2003], (Beijing, China Labor Social Security Press, 2004), p. 379.

113

Ibid., p. 379.

114 Loraine A. West, “Pension reform in China: Preparing for the future,” Journal of Development Studies, Feb. 1999, p. 165. In some cities, the social benefit payment that the enterprise is required to pay the government is not strictly a percentage of whatever the total gross salary bill is. For example, in Shanghai for 2003, enterprises had to pay 43.5 percent of the total wage bill, subject to the following constraints: if the reported total wage bill divided by the reported number of employees averaged less than 60 percent of Shanghai’s average monthly salary for the first half of 2003, the enterprise still had to pay 43.5 percent of that minimum salary threshold; the maximum payment the enterprise was required to remit was 43.5 percent of the total wage bill that would represent 3 times the average 2003 Shanghai wage. (See Lulu Zhang, “Shanghai region: Updates on Shanghai social benefit affecting FIE monthly overheads,” China Briefing; The Practical Application of China Business, June 2004, p. 10.) This procedure is supposed to be applied nationwide, based on State Council Document Number 6. See also Loraine A. West and Daniel Goodkind, Pension Management and Reform in China, NBR Executive Insight Series No. 15 (Seattle, National Bureau of Asian Research, 1999), p. 3.)

115 Data for Changshu City are from Qiye shenbao shehui baoxian jiaofei yewu zhinan (Business Guide to Enterprises on Social Insurance Payments), Jan. 15, 2004; on the Internet at http://www.changshu.gov.cn/H/content/HQA0000000000002837.htm. Data for Wuxi City are from Shehui baoxianfei jiaofei bili mingxi biao (Table of Detailed Comparisons of Required Social Insurance Payments), 2858 fuwuwang (2858 service Internet site) at http://www.wx2858.com/XCBST/jyzn/shehuibaoxian.asp.

116 China Labor Statistical Yearbook 2003, pp. 471, 575-81. China had 21.3

million TVE’s of all kinds in 2002, but only 85,000 of them had any rural old-age pension insurance. By yearend 2002, a cumulative total of 54.6 million people had ever contributed to any rural social pension insurance scheme, but during 2002, only 4.1 million contributed to such a system.

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