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Speech 251 Handout Packet Table of Contents - page 12 / 25





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Using Connectives


INSTRUCTIONS First, Read about each of the types of connectives listed below, then Place connectives in the appropriate places in your outlines.

Connectives are words or phrases that join the thoughts of a speech together and indicate the relationship between them. Connectives are essential to help the audience focus on main ideas without having them guess which ideas the speaker thinks are important. The audience is able to tune into what points the speaker has talked about and what point the speaker is presently talking about. When a speaker uses connectives properly the speech will flow smoothly and make complex ideas understandable. Each speech should contain the following four connectives: transitions, internal previews, internal summaries, and signposts.

TRANSITIONS: Transitions are used to indicate movement from a completed thought to a new thought. Transitions indicate what idea is being left and what idea is coming up. The following examples indicate the use of this connective.

being a problem nationwide, suicide is

a problem on our campus.

the problem;

the solution?

what a serious problem illiteracy is,

“How can I help?”

a little more about what memory is, process of memory.

the relationship between the human brain and the

INTERNAL PREVIEWS: Internal previews direct the audience to what areas will be covered next. Internal previews generally appear once the speaker has finished a transition and after a new main point. The speaker simply previews the subpoints which make up the point being addressed. The following examples show how internal previews key the audience into the areas to be discussed.

We can help solve the problem by




INTERNAL SUMMARIES: Internal summaries are the flip side of internal previews. Rather than indicating what subpoints are to follow in the speech, internal summaries remind the listeners what subpoints have been discussed. Internal summaries are excellent ways to reinforce and clarify ideas which are essential for the audience to remember. The following are examples of internal summaries.

Therefore, anyone can help solve the problem by


I hope I’ve made it clear that needed information is slipping right by us because



SIGNPOSTS: Signposts are short statements which tell the audience where the speaker is in the speech. Often times signposts are numbers of words which suggest that what the speaker is about to say is important. The following are examples of signposts.


take a look at the nature of the problem.


warning sign is giving away one’s possessions.



to remember is child custody battle injure the children.

we must examine the engine of the car.

COMBINATION OF CONNECTIVES: Connectives, when combined effectively, allow a speech to flow smoothly through each idea. The following is an example:

(Internal Summary: I hope I have made it clear that

is used as a system of passing on history and knowledge about the

Gods, Goddesses, Kings and Queens.

can be easily identified by unsmiling faces, and stiff motions of the dancers.)

(Transition: Since we now know a little about ancient hula, let us turn to the modern hula.)


(Main Point 2) The second major form of hula in Hawaii is the modern hula or


(Internal Preview: 'Auana is used for entertainment, it narrates love stories, and is distinguishable from kahiko.)

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