App. B—Commissioned Background Papers
industry and domestically
universities to improve the capabilities and cost effectiveness
efforts through research and development grants to industry and to universities also and through encouraging prospective users, especially in defense industries.
Similar efforts have been made in this country, although probably on more limited scale.
Turning patterns may
somewhat. similar early developmental
process controls for individual production units.
But the fact that computer
wider sets creasingly
of individual process controls and then encompassing performance-monitoring and
integrating these control systems.
into in- Although
international surveys have called to be much more advanced than any
attention to some foreign systems which seem in the United States , most of these seem still
(9) to represent uncommon cases of pioneering or largely experimental applications.
Developmental efforts are under way in a number of domestic firms, especially
those involved in aerospace programs,
to extend applications of programmable
these have not yet reached the stage of and none at all have achieved effective
reliable broad commercial applicability integration over a wide array of such
Moreover, both developmental efforts meager proportions in firms basically
and applications have been of devoted to non-defense production.
Hence the question arises in this connection, as it did in respect to robotics, whether any additional measures should be considered to augment the increasing, but still limited, efforts of private industry and of universities to accelerate the development of increasingly comprehensive programmable automation system.
Finally, increasing attention might well be given to the possibility that the development of programmable automation systems may engender an alternative approach
to the development of robotic past approach of roboticizing
functions and forms. existing manual tasks,
Specifically, in place of the the designing of programmable
(9) For example, see Dennis Wisnosky,
Survey (Dayton, OH:
Air Force Systems Command, December 1977) and
and H. Yoshikawa, Computer-Aided Manufacturing:
An International Comparison (Washington,
National Research Council
Committee on Computer-Aided Manufacturing, Sept. 1981.)