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App. B—Commissioned Background Papers

topic, and also probably the

most

difficult.

A

computer

treat

a

visual

image as an

array of brightness

dots

picture

elements,

or pixels.

A

typical

scene

may

mus t

called

consist of terpretation

from 16 of such

thousand to over a large volume of

a million data is an

pixels. In- enormous

task even seconds to computer.

for a

high speed

computer.

several

minutes to

analyse a

This

is

far

too

slow

for

th

It often takes many single picture by e robot to respond in

a timely fashion to

to

speed

up

this

what it sees. response time.

Various tricks are used One is to illuminate the

scene

so

that

the

objects

appear

as

black

and

white

silhouettes.

Another

is

interest touch or overlap.

cial

circumstances

robot

to assure that no two Objects of However, even under such artifi- vision is a very complex problem

and subject to many difficulties. limit the use of robot vision to a

Such techniques obviously few select applications.

Other robot sensory inputs such as touch and force appear

be

simpler

in

principle,

but

much

less

work

has

been

done

to in

these areas. Fourth, control systems are needed which can take

advantage

of sophisticated ferent types of

sensory sensors

data from a large number of dif-

simultaneously.

Present

control

systems robot’s control

are severely limited behavior in response to systems need to be able

in their ability to modify a sensed conditions. Robot to accept feedback data at a

variety of

levels of abstraction and have control loops with

a

variety

of

loop

delays

and

predictive

intervals.

See

for

example, Figure 2.

for and

high

speed or

introduced

into

Sensory data used in tight high precision motions must

servo loops be processed

the

control

system

with

delays

of

no

more than a few milliseconds.

Sensory data

ing

the

position

and

orientation

of

objects

used for detect- to be approached

must

be

available

within

hundreds

of

milliseconds.

Sensory

data needed relationship

for recognizing the identity of objects or

the

between

groups

of

Objects

can

take

seconds.

Control systems that are cal fashion so that they

properly organized in a

can

accommodate

a

variety

hierarchi–

of

senso–

ry delays of this type are not available on robot.

any

commercial

Fifth, robot control systems need to have much

ticated

internal

models

of

the

environment

more sophis- in which they

work. Future similar to systems, and

robot those

control systems will have data generated by Computer–Aided-Design

bases (CAD)

used for computer graphics displays.

These can

describe workplace

the and

three

dimensional

the

workplaces.

Such

relationships of both the

data

bases

are

needed

to

generate expectations as the vision system, or what

touch

sensors,

or

where

to what parts should look like to

they should

feel like to

hidden or

occluded features

the are

  • ‚óŹ

    65

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