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App. B—Commissioned Background Papers . 69

increasing tion is:

productivity in industrial production.

How

much

time

and

how

many

resources

The ques-

will

be

re-

quired before this becomes a reality? In my opinion more than a few tens of

millions}

and

less

than a few development

hundreds of millions of dollars will be required to make robots

for research and

capable

of

per-

forming a productivity

sufficient

number

of tasks to make significant

improvements

in

industrial

manufacturing.

More

than

a

years

of

few high

hundred

and less than a few thousand

person-

level

scientific

and

engineering

talent

will

be be In

needed before robot software of sufficient complexity can

generated economically for small

other

words,

a national

research

lot and

batch production. development effort

of at least

one,

and

greater produce

than what has a significant

perhaps two, orders been done to date will

impact

on

industrial

of magnitude be required to productivity.

And ics

more than just total dollars spent

research

is

systems

research.

At

is important.

least

a

few

Robot- stable,

consistently well funded research centers of excellence will be required.

The questions then are:

“How fast are we progressing along the road to the solutions?” and “Who are the researchers that are leading the way?”

In the United boratories:

States

there

are

four

types

of

research

la-

  • 1.

    University

  • 2.

    Non-profit

  • 3.

    Private ‘Industry

  • 4.

    Government

UNIVERSITY RESEARCH Among the principal university labs are:

Stanford University:

long

standing,

Tom

The robotics effort at Stanford is of Binford has been doing pioneering work

in three-dimensional

vision for over a decade.

His students

have

developed

one

of

the

most

advanced

robot

programming

languages Stanford

for

Arm Language.

The

lab

has produced a

long

available today called AL,

artificial

intelligence

list of hand-eye

ground breaking coordination)

research projects in

and

robot

assembly.

manipulation Stanford is

presently working on robot vision, a

three-fingered

hand,

force

sensing,

robot

programming languages,

and geometric

and

programming.

with

Unimation

modeling

for

vision

cooperative

program

a

They

also

for

robot

have

mobility.

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