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App. B—Commissioned Background Papers

Explanation of Figure 2.

The command and control structure

tions

of great

complexity is

wherein

goals, or

tasks, selected

for successful organiza- invariably hierarchical,

at

the

highest

level

are

decomposed one or more

into

sequences

operational

units

of subtasks which are passed to

at

the

next

lower

level

in

the

hierarchy. Each input command in tained from other

of these lower level units decomposes its

the context of

feedback

units

at

the

same

or

lower

information

levels,

or

ob– from

the external

subtasks

to

environment, and issues sequences of sub- a set of subordinates at the next lower level.

This same procedure is repeated at each successive hierarch-

ical level

until

generated

a set o f

at

the bottom

sequences

of

of the hierarchy there is

primitive

actions

which

drive individual actuators “such as motors, servo valves, hy-

draulic pistons,

can be Figure 2.

seen

in

or individual muscles.

This

the

organizational

hierarchy

basic on the

scheme left of

A single chy on

chain of

command through

the left

is shown as the

the organizational hierar- computational hierarchy in

the center sists of hierarchy, hierarchy.

of Figure 2.

This computational

hierarchy

con-

three parallel hierarchies: a a sensory processing hierarchy,

task

decomposition

and

a world model

The

sensory

processing

hierarchy

consists

of

a

series of computational units,

each

particular

features

and

information

of

which

patterns

extract needed by

the the

task decomposition unit at that level.

sensory

processing

hierarchy

enters

Feedback

each

level

of

from

the

the task

decomposition hierarchy.

from

the

same

or

lower

This levels

feedback information comes of the hierarchy or from the

external environment.

It is

used by the modules in the task

decomposition

hierarchy

to

sequence

their

outputs

and

to

modify higher

their decomposition function so

as to accomplish

the

level

goal

in

spite

of

perturbations

and

unexpected

events in the environment. The world model hierarchy consists of a

set

of

knowledge

bases

that

generate expectations against which the sensory

processing modules can

stream.

Expectations

compare the are based on

observed sensory stored information

data which

task being

executed

at

any

particular

processing

units can

use

this

information

is accessed by the

time,

The

sensory

to select the particular processing

propriate to the task decomposition

expected sensory units of whatever

algorithms that are ap- data and can inform the differences, or errors,

exist

between

decomposition

the

unit

observed

and

can

then

respond,

expected data.

The

either

by

altering

task the

action so as to correspondence with

put

to

the

world

bring the observed the expectation) or model so as to bring

sensory

data into

by

altering

the

in-

the

expectation

into

  • ‚óŹ

    85

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