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elling with Bello, he was introduced to King Saud bin Abdul Aziz, who encouraged his translation of Islamic texts from Arabic into Hausa. This meeting, and the other contacts Gummi made along the way, was to have a profound impact on his thinking and the direc- tion the Izala took once it was founded. For while Gum- mi did not embrace wahhabism in its entirety, many of its values chimed with those he held. And over the years, the Saudi Arabian government is reported to have given the Izala significant material support and encouragement. These provisions are allegedly made through the Saudi Arabian embassy in Nigeria.23

Once Gummi returned from Saudi Arabia his links to Bello helped him gain teaching berths in Kano and Kaduna. He used these positions to continue his work translating the Qur’an and sunnah into Hausa, and to promote his salafist views. Then almost overnight, as a result of Bello’s murder by Igbo army officers on January 15, 1966, his animosity toward the Sultan and Emirs, Qaidiriyya and Tijaniyya, hardened. Bello had been a calming influence on Gummi. And out of re- spect for his friend, who was a member of the family that had done more than any other to make the Ca- liphate of Sokoto what it was, Gummi toned down his criticism. But with Bello’s death, any brake that had been placed on what he said and did vanished. Indeed, it was very soon after Bello’s death that he co-founded the Izala. He did so in part in retaliation against the politicians and religious leaders who seemed to either benefit from or care little about Bello’s assassination.

Given Gummi’s centrality to the group, its mem- bership includes many of his former students and is concentrated mainly in his home-town of Kaduna and, to a lesser extent, in the near-by cities of Kano, Jos, and Zaria. Its division between these urban centres


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