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organizations, including the Qadiriyya and Tijaniyya, earning Zakzaky a reputation as someone quite will- ing to use violence to further his aims. It was also over this period, as the creation of the horas suggests, that his admiration for both the Iranian model and Shiite Islam grew. This was to have a profound effect on his group and the Islamist movement as a whole. Indeed, perhaps the most important consequence was that it alienated many of his Sunni followers. So much so, that in the late 1990s one of his most trusted lieutenants, Abubakar Mujahid, left his entourage and founded the MIR. Based primarily in Kano, it adopted many of the tactics used by the horas and quickly developed a repu- tation for causing and exploiting street level violence. And of greater concern to the police and authorities was the capacity of both groups to organize massive protests. Collectively referred to as the Muslim Broth- ers, they became a formidable grass roots force, “capa- ble of bringing out a half-million people into the streets of Kano.”27 Both Zakzaky and Mujahid are noisy sup- porters of Al Qaeda and Osama Bin Laden.28

Of the two, Zakzaky’s IMN, as it became known, is the larger organization. His embrace of Shiite Islam and admiration of Iran won him influential backers in Tehran. Over the last 2 decades, it has provided him and his group with financial and other support. In- deed, without this help it is highly likely that the IMN would have withered on the vine, given that the over- whelming majority of Nigeria’s Muslims are Sunnis. As it is, the IMN uses these funds to promote the Shiite and Iranian causes through a series of activities includ- ing ta’alim (study sessions that take place three times a week), ijitima (more intensive study sessions), daura (seminars and workshops), khutba (religious sermons), and muzaharats (mass demonstrations).29


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