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the links Boko Haram has allegedly established with AQLIM. Indeed, these attacks were a step up from the riots and other religious violence that habitually grips the north, as they were part of a coordinated strategy to break the government’s authority in the region.

The grievances that gave rise to this violence and the popularity of the services offered by the Izala and IMN makes the community outreach programs fi- nanced and run by the Qadiriyya and Tijaniyya all the more important. For they represent two of the few al- ternatives for many poor people living in the north. In both instances, these programs are built around edu- cation—schools and colleges, lessons and courses. To- day, the Qadiriyya runs a nursery, a primary school, a secondary school, and a college that is accredited to award diplomas. Unusually for northern Nigeria, all classes are co-educational. The Tijaniyya similarly teaches children and youths of all ages, and also helps adults study the Qur’an, and learn to read and write.

Both Brotherhoods are highly active throughout Kano and the north in other ways. In fact, their pro- grams mirror that of the IMN and include sermons and prayer sessions, workshops, seminars, meetings, rallies, and events to celebrate important dates in the religious calendar. But in addition, given their status within Nigeria’s religious community, both Sheikh Kabara and Sheikh Khalifa appear regularly on nation- al television and radio. This, arguably, gives them ac- cess to a much broader audience than either Dr Gummi or Zakzaky or Mujahid or the leaders of Boko Haram.

Ripe Conditions: The State of Northern Nigeria Today.

According to most indices of human develop- ment, Nigeria has made little progress over the past


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