and traditions [are] alien to Islam primarily because of their emphasis on intermediaries between God and Man, and [lead] to decadence and superstition.” Michael Willis, The Islamist Challenge in Algeria: A Political History, Reading, NY: Ithaca Press, 1996, pp. 12 -13.
6. The continent’s other major oil producers are Algeria, Angola, and Libya.
7. Sonia Shah, Crude: The Story of Oil, New York: Seven Stories Press, 2004, p. 94.
8. U.S. Department of States, “Background Note: Nigeria,” September 2009, available from www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2836. htm.
9. J. N. C Hill, Identity in Algerian Politics: The Legacy of Colonial Rule, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2009, p. 180.
Ibid., p. 176.
By this time, the GSPC was already making overtures
to Al Qaeda. These links were made more formal in September 2006 when Abdelmalek Droukdel, the GSPC’s emir, announced an alliance between the two groups. Finally, in January 2007, he announced that, in recognition of this new union, the GSPC would forthwith be known as Al Qaeda in the Land of the Islamic Maghreb.
12. These neighbors include Sierra Leone, Liberia, Cote d’Ivoire, Niger, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
13. Martin Evans and John Philips, Algeria: The Anger of the Dispossessed, New Haven, CT, and London, UK: 2007, p. 287.
14. The DSCA’s budget for 2009 was $750 million. Department of Defense, “Fiscal Year (FY) 2009 Budget Estimates Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA),” 2009, available from www. defenselink.mil/comptroller/defbudget/fy2009/budget_justification/ pdfs/01_Operation_and_Maintenance/O_M_VOL_1_PARTS/ DSCA%20FY%2009%20PB%20OP-5.pdf.