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15. John N. Paden, Muslim Civic Cultures and Conflict Resolution: The Challenge of Democratic Federalism in Nigeria, Washington DC, Brookings Institution Press: 2005, p. 253 n 5.

16. Indeed, according to intelligence reports drafted by the colonial authorities in the early 20th century, the Brotherhoods were viewed as focal points for opposition and resistance to British rule.

17. John Esposito, ed., The Oxford Encyclopaedia of the Modern Islamic World, 4th Ed., Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1995,

  • p.


    • 18.

      A.J. Arberry, Sufism: An Account of the Mystics of Islam,

New York: Dover Publications Inc., p. 35.

19. This coolness in the relations between the Qadiriyya and Tijaniyya became apparent during the course of my interviews with Sheikh Kabara and Sheikh Khalifa.

  • 20.

    Paden, Faith and Politics in Nigeria, p. 28.

  • 21.

    Ousmane Kane, Muslim Modernity in Postcolonial Nigeria: A

Study of the Society for the Removal of Innovation and Reinstatement of Tradition, Leiden and Boston, MA: Brill, 2003, p. 232.

22. John L. Esposito, Islam and Politics, 4th Ed., New York: Syracuse University Press, 1984, p. 37.

23. Qaribullahi Sheikh Nasir Kabara, Leader of Qadiriyya in Nigeria and West Africa, interview by author, Sheikh Kabara’s home in Kano Nigeria, February 26, 2009; and Sheikh Ismail Ibrahim Khalifa, Leader of Tijaniyya in Nigeria and West Africa, interview by author, Sheikh Khalifa’s home in Kano, Nigeria, June 11, 2009.

  • 24.

    Paden, Faith and Politics in Nigeria, p. 30.

  • 25.

    Toyin Falola, Violence in Nigeria: The Crisis of Religious

Politics and Secular Ideologies, Rochester, NY: Rochester University Press, 1998, p. 195.


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