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26. Karl Maier, This House Has Fallen, London, UK: Penguin Books, 2000, p. 175.

  • 27.

    Ibid., p. 166.

  • 28.

    See for example, Zakzaky’s long defense of Bin Laden.

Mallam Ibraheem Zakzaky, “Terrorism in the World Today, What is Terrorism? Who are the Terrorists?” 2009, available from www. islamicmovement.org/sheikh/terrorism2.htm.

29. Islamic Movement in Nigeria, “Activities,” 2009, available from www.islamicmovement.org/activities.htm.

30. Indeed one after another from 1999 onwards, the 12 states that make up the north adopted sharia law.

  • 31.

    Islamic Movement in Nigeria, “Activities,” p. 1.

  • 32.

    Kabara, interview by author; and Khalifa, interview by

author.

  • 33.

    Khalifa, interview by author.

  • 34.

    Paden, Muslim Civic Cultures and Conflict Resolution, p. 188.

  • 35.

    This Day, “Boko Haram—Death Toll Now 700, Says

Security Commander,” August 2, 2009, available from allafrica. com/stories/200908020001.html, p. 1.

36. This is certainly the view of Ahmed Nuhu, a descendent of a former Emir of Zaria and possible successor to the current incumbent. Ahmed Nuhu, interview by author Abuja, Nigeria, December 5, 2008.

37. From October 1, 1960, to August 16, 1963, Nigeria had three regions—Northern, Western, and Eastern. Following a referendum held on July 13, 1963, a fourth region—Mid- Western—was created out of the Western region. Benjamin Obi Nwabueze, A Constitutional History of Nigeria, London, UK: Hurst, 1982, pp. 136-137.

38. Jean Herskovits, “Nigeria’s Rigged Democracy,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 86, No. 4, July/August 2007, p. 120.

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