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Sensors & Transducers Journal, Vol. 113, Issue 2, February 2010, pp. 1-17

Sensors & Transducers

ISSN 1726-5479 © 2010 by IFSA http://www.sensorsportal.com

Biosensors and Biochips for Nanomedical Applications: a Review

1Sarmishtha GHOSHAL, Debasis MITRA, Sudip ROY,

Dwijesh DUTTA MAJUMDER 1Bengal Engineering and Science University, Howrah – 711 103, India Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata – 700 108, India E-mail: sharmi.bhatta@gmail.com, debasis.mitra@gmail.com, sudiproy.bkp@gmail.com, ddm@hotmail.com

Received: 19 January 2010 /Accepted: 19 February 2010 /Published: 26 February 2010

Abstract: In the last few decades, a tremendous growth in the field of nanotechnology has been witnessed and its applications to various disciplines are being continuously explored. In this review article, we focus on a very important and emerging area of nano-bio sensors and biochips, which have prospects of numerous applications to nanomedicine. We will discuss various topics of biosensors and transducers based on quantum dots (QD), porous silicon (PS), and Si-nanoparticles. A short discussion on biochips, along with their classification and applications to microarrays and drug delivery systems, is also presented. Some powerful optical techniques like Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET), and Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) that are often deployed in conjunction with biosensors and biochips, as an interface mechanism, are also reviewed. Copyright © 2010 IFSA.

Keywords: Biochips, Biosensors, Porous silicon, Quantum dots, Nanoparticles, Nanomedicine

1. Introduction

Recent advances in nanoscience and technology have fueled a complete shift of paradigm in the physical, chemical, material, biological, healthcare, medical, and agricultural sciences, and also in mechanical, electrical, and computer engineering, as a result of attaining control of matter at the molecular or atomic level, i.e., at the single nanometer scale [1-56]. At the nanometer scale, matter is observed to exhibit numerous unique properties and phenomena, fundamentally different from their macroscopic counterparts. These properties can be harnessed to create new materials for novel applications such as biosensors or drug delivery systems, or to design new types of circuits and


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