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16 / 81

4.0

1.0

1.6

.3

6.9

(58.7)

(14.5)

(23.0)

(3.8)

(100)

3.2

.8

.2

.9

5.2

(62.0)

(15.9)

(4.5)

(17.6)

(100)

4.1

1.0

.4

.7

6.3

(65.4)

(16.7)

(6.4)

(11.4)

(100)

4.2

1.2

.3

1.5

7.2

(58.9)

(16.2)

(4.0)

(20.9)

(100)

3.9

1.0

.3

.9

6.1

(63.3)

(16.9)

(4.7)

(15.1)

(100)

3.6

.9

.3

1.4

6.2

(57.5)

(14.9)

(4.7)

(22.8)

(100)

3.5

1.2

.7

1.3

6.7

(52.2)

(17.6)

(10.1)

(20.1)

(100)

3.6

1.2

.6

1.9

7.3

(49.7)

(16.8)

(8.1)

(25.4)

(100)

3.0

1.0

1.3

1.3

6.6

(45.2)

(15.1)

(19.8)

(19.9)

(100)

Table 5.4

Year 1994–95

1995–96

1996–97

1997–98

1998–99

1999–2000

2000–01

2001–02

2002–03a

a. Data for 2002–03 are preliminary. Note: Data include semolina.

Sources: Statistics Canada, Agriculture Economics Statistics, 2004; USDA (2004b); and Canadian Wheat Board statistical tables 2003–04.

Volume of durum wheat exports by principal exporters, 1994–2003 (millions of tons, percent of world exports in parentheses)

Canada

United States

Total

European Union

Others

States, representing nearly 90 percent of total US wheat imports. During 1993–2003, US imports of Canadian hard red spring wheat increased steadily from over 1 million metric tons to nearly 2 million metric tons in 2001 but declined to 779,000 metric tons in 2003 on account of adverse weather.34 Similarly, imports of Canadian durum wheat rose to 595,000 metric tons in 2002 but declined sharply to 40,000 metric tons in 2003 (tables 5.5 and 5.6). 35

34. Widespread drought in western Canada in 2002–03 was the primary reason for declin- ing production and exports of Canadian hard red spring wheat. In fact, drought and poor harvest weather in three of the world’s largest wheat exporters (Australia, Canada, and the United States) created opportunities for nontraditional exporters, including Russia and Ukraine. See CWB (2003) and Vocke and Allen (2005).

35. North Dakota is the main US producing state, accounting for 47 percent of US hard red spring wheat production and 81 percent of US durum wheat production. Montana is the other key wheat producer, accounting for 22 percent of US hard red spring wheat produc- tion and 9 percent of US durum wheat production. See USDA (2002e).

298

NAFTA REVISITED: ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES

Institute for International Economics | www.iie.com

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