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US exports to Canada Mexico NAFTA subtotal

0 23 23

0 4 4

14 3 17

2 1 3

4 58 62

1 9 10

0 47 47

0 7 8

0 36 36

Total world (including NAFTA)

1,232

189

1,209

235

1,143

234

995

212

1,454

US imports from Canada Mexico NAFTA subtotal

513 0 0

70 0 70

376 0 376

55 0 55

313 0 313

66 0 66

250 0 250

56 0 56

433 0 433

Total world (including NAFTA)

513

70

376

55

313

66

250

56

433

Note: Data are based on durum wheat by HTS code 1001.10. Source: USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (FATUS) database, 2004.

Table 5.6

US durum wheat trade with NAFTA partners, 1993–2003 (volume in thousands of metric tons and value in millions of dollars)

Country

1993

Volume Value

1996

Volume Value

1997

Volume

1995

Volume

Value

1994

Volume

Value

all wheat and barley, and (like its private competitors) sells on a global basis.44 As a crown corporation, the CWB enjoys special privileges:45

  • Financing is guaranteed by the Canadian government, which com- pensates for any shortfalls in sales revenue from wheat or barley.

  • The government of Canada also guarantees certain export credit sales of the CWB.46

  • The CWB can borrow money at favorable interest rates.47

44. Three commissioners appointed by the Canadian government manage the CWB. The only province that does not operate through the CWB is Ontario, which established its own marketing board controlled independently by farmers. However, most of Ontario’s exports are soft wheat and represent only 5 percent of total Canadian wheat exports. See Carter and Loyns (1998) and GAO (1998).

45. Crown corporations are companies designated by the government of Canada to admin- ister and manage public services.

46. Government expenditure for wheat and barley operations decreased from $3.2 billion in 1990 to $922 million in 1996 but then increased to reach $1.2 billion in 2003. See GAO (1998) and Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat’s Web site, www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/est-pre/p2_0304e. asp (accessed October 2004).

47. The CWB control over transportation and merchandising are additional factors in Canada’s competitive trade policy. Under the Wheat Access Facilitation Program (1990), the CWB controls 1,100 primary elevators that handle US wheat exports to Canada.

302

NAFTA REVISITED: ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES

Institute for International Economics | www.iie.com

Value

0 4 4

285

86 0 86

86

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