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Country

1997–98

2002–03

US exports to Algeria Brazil China Colombia Japan Morocco Peru Philippines South Africa Turkey Venezuela

197 323 405 3,204 488 208 913 133 260 558

244 570 202 734 3,038 153 566 1,438 181 0 618

Canadian exports to Algeria Brazil China Colombia Japan Morocco Peru Philippines South Africa Turkey Venezuela

2,314 621 1,331 597 1,449 368 636 411 257 216 600

734 170 177 273 1,088 311 148 515 n.a. 118 228

  • = less than 500 metric tons

    • n.

      a. = not available

Sources: USITC (2001); USDA (2004b); Canadian Grain Commission (2003); and UN Comtrade database, 2004.

Table 5.7

Comparison of US and Canadian wheat exports to third-country markets (thousands of tons)

the CWB estimated that accredited exporters made 30 percent of its sales. 50

The primary means for US wheat producers to sell their wheat directly to the Canadian market is through the Canadian Wheat Access Facilita- tion Program. On paper, this program allows US wheat producers to negotiate sales contracts with prospective Canadian buyers on price, quantity, and delivery of wheat. Private companies participating in the program include Agricore, Pioneer, Cargill Limited, and Louis Dreyfus. However, according to US wheat producers, the reality is that the pro- 51

50. While historical figures on exports of accredited exporters are not available, it is widely believed that values have grown significantly over the past 10 years. According to Bruce Gardner (2000), the CWB negotiates each export deal, and wheat transaction prices are closely held secrets.

51. See the Canadian Grain Commission’s Web site at www.grainscanada.gc.ca (accessed in January 2003).

304

NAFTA REVISITED: ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES

Institute for International Economics | www.iie.com

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