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32 / 81

1992–93

113,237

28,566

28,782

86,101

1993–94

111,015

30,538

29,734

85,849

1994–95

117,517

32,313

30,618

100,762

1995–96

122,568

33,228

34,920

103,073

1996–97

123,108

33,915

37,153

106,918

1997–98

125,265

33,494

37,208

109,265

1998–99

131,112

36,299

37,346

113,576

1999–2000

136,532

36,208

41,448

115,920

2000–01

130,495

38,786

37,686

117,531

2001–02

134,888

37,835

41,228

121,489

2002–03

147,336

39,309

45,724

123,521

2003–04

144,635

37,237

45,107

125,119

2001–02

12,431

2,684

551

15,236

2002–03

12,883

2,809

193

15,271

2003–04

13,632

2,890

368

15,043

  • a.

    Domestic consumption reflects changes (not shown) in sugar stocks.

  • b.

    The US production, supply, and distribution estimates conform to those released in the World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE), with the WASDE “miscella- neous” category allocated to domestic consumption. All data are presented on a fiscal year (October-September) basis. The US data include Puerto Rico.

  • c.

    Total distribution includes unrecorded imports.

Source: USDA Production, Supply, and Distribution database, 2002–04.

Table 5.8

Country/ye

World totalc

ar

World production, supply, and distribution of centrifugal

sugar (thousands of metric tons, raw value)

(continued)

Production

Imports

Exports

Domestic consumptiona

year;82 Mexico’s net exports to the world averaged a little less than 0.2 million tons.

Mexico has high tariffs of 18.33 percent on sugar imports from Canada and 17.31 percent on sugar imports from the United States. The United States has a minimal tariff rate of 0.85 percent on Canadian sugar exports and 1.02 percent on Mexican sugar exports. However, severe quantitative limits buttress US tariffs. By contrast, Canada is a net sugar importer and does not have TRQs or special export programs for sugar products. Canada imports between 85 and 90 percent of its sugar needs at the world market price, and domestic sugar prices move closely in parallel with world prices. Since 2001, Canada has eliminated its import tariffs on sugar imports from Mexico and the United States. As a result, low market prices of Canadian sugar attract US food processing companies, which are starting to relocate and take advantage of Canada’s free-market sugar policy.83 Practically the

82. To put the import figures in perspective, in 2001, US sugar production was 7.2 million metric tons raw value, and the United States imported 1.4 million metric tons. Domestic sugar consumption, taking into account stock drawdowns, reached 9.3 million metric tons. See USDA (2002b), Haley and Suarez (2002), and LMC International (2003).

83. For example, in 2003, Kraft Foods planned to close its Michigan-based Life Savers man- ufacturing plant and shift production to Montreal. Relocating to Canada is expected to save Kraft about $10 million per year. See “Sweet Subsidy,” Time, February 25, 2002.

314

NAFTA REVISITED: ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES

Institute for International Economics | www.iie.com

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