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set by NAFTA

Volume

Value

(millions of

(millions of

(millions of

Year

metric tons)

metric tons)

dollars)

1994

2.5

3.1

340

1995

2.6

2.9

359

1996

2.7

6.3

1,003

1997

2.7

2.6

317

1998

2.8

5.2

590

1999

2.9

5.1

527

2000

3.0

5.2

511

2001

3.1

5.7

626

2002

3.2

5.4

639

2003

3.3

5.7

688

2004

3.4

n.a.

n.a.

2005

3.5

n.a.

n.a.

2006

3.6

n.a.

n.a.

2007

3.7

n.a.

n.a.

2008

3.8

n.a.

n.a.

Tariff rate quota level

Actual US

corn exports

Table 5.11

US overquota corn exports to Mexico, 1994–2008

n.a. = not applicable

Source: USDA (2002a); USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (FATUS) data- base, 2004.

lion in tariff revenues, at least two-thirds on yellow corn imports, using the argument that cheaper corn imports were necessary to meet growing domestic livestock demand and control inflation. In fact, domestic de- mand for yellow feed corn increased more than fourfold, from 1.7 million metric tons in 1990 to 9.5 million metric tons in 2002 (table 5.12).130 Mexi- can per capita consumption of beef rose from 12.3 to 16.4 kilograms in the same period. By contrast, US per capita consumption of beef remained about 29 kilograms during this period (table 5.13). 131

130. According to Lloyd Day, USDA spokesperson, roughly 80 percent of US corn exports to Mexico is yellow corn used primarily to feed growing demand for Mexican livestock. See Olga R. Rodriguez, “Oxfam Reports on US Subsidies in Mexico,” Associated Press, August 28, 2003.

131. Data are based on USDA Economic Research Service Food Consumption Per Capita Data System, 2003.

AGRICULTURE

329

Institute for International Economics | www.iie.com

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