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Year

Canada

Mexicoa

Statesb

1991

2.22

4.39

2.37

1992

2.26

4.57

2.07

1993

2.52

4.84

2.50

1994

2.23

4.11

2.26

1995

3.81

4.69

3.24

1996

2.71

3.96

2.71

1997

2.53

3.65

2.43

1998

1.86

3.65

1.94

1999

1.81

3.54

1.82

2000

2.02

3.78

1.85

2001

2.15

3.72

1.91

2002

2.32

3.69

2.32

2003

2.15

3.75

2.20

United

a. White corn prices are calculated as weighted average of Conasupo buying prices for maize producers. b. Data are average price.

Sources: Mexico: 1991–94 estimates are based on Nadal (2000); 1995–2000 data are minimum prices for corn pro- ducers based on OECD, Agricultural Policies in OECD Coun- tries, 1998–2002; and 2001–03 data are based on SECOFI, Mexico’s Ministry of Economy, 2003–04, Sistema de Infor- mación Empresarial Mexicano, www.secofi-siem.gob.mx/ portalsiem (accessed in June 2003). United States: 1991– 2001 data are based on CRB (2003); and 2002–03 data are based on Grain Price Outlook, University of Purdue and Uni- versity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (2000). Canada: Data are based on AAFC (2003a).

Table 5.15

NAFTA prices for corn (US dollars per bushel)

and about the same percentage of cultivated land in Mexico, is engaged in growing corn (Nadal 2000; Veeman, Veeman, and Hoskins 2001). At the turn of the 20th century, some 2,000 families owned 87 percent of the rural land in Mexico. The Mexican revolution, in 1910, distributed much of this land to ejidos. Today about 3.5 million farmers hold over 103 million hectares, and the individual ejidatorios on average cultivate small plots of about 5 hectares or less.139 Ejidos are responsible for about 62 percent of total domestic corn production, about 70 percent on rain-fed land. Most ejido holdings are too fragmented to enable economies of scale and use

139. About 50 percent of Mexico’s farmers till plots of 5 hectares or less (1 hectare = 2.741 acres). These farmers cultivate about 15 percent of total ejido land, and they earn less than a third of their income from agriculture. See Williams (2004). More than 20 percent of ejidato- rios have farms split among three or more plots. See Giugale, Lafourcade, and Nguyen (2001).

334

NAFTA REVISITED: ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES

Institute for International Economics | www.iie.com

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