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NAFTA’s corn and bean provisions suggest that US-Mexico corn disputes are waiting in the wings. In April 2003, Mexican farmers pressured Presi- dent Vicente Fox to create a $270 million emergency fund and sign a na- tional agriculture agreement that pledged to limit Mexican white corn im- ports.155 Recently, when the Mexican Senate voted to extend the HFCS tax on soft drinks, it also agreed to a prospective overquota tariff of 72.6 per- cent on imports of US white corn. 156

Canada is also concerned about US corn exports. In 2000, Canada al- most levied AD duties on US corn.157 In 2002, the Canadian Grain Com- mission banned US corn exports that contain traces of Starlink corn, a

155. In April 2003, agriculture protesters numbering 60,000 demonstrated against the prospect, at the end of 2008, of tariff-free NAFTA agricultural trade in corn, beans, powdered milk, and sugar. The National Agriculture Agreement also seeks to study the effects of NAFTA and the US Farm Act of 2002. See Pav Jordan, “Mexico to Seek Some NAFTA Changes,” Reuters News, April 28, 2003.

156. Reports suggest US yellow corn exports to Mexico might also be subject to higher overquota tariffs depending on the domestic supply and demand situation determined by the Mexican Commerce and Agriculture Ministries. See “Mexico Extends HFCS Tax,” Inside US Trade, January 2, 2004.

157. The Manitoba Crown Growers filed an AD and CVD action against the United States in August 2000. The Canadian government did not levy duties on US corn imports, partly be- cause most US corn exports are used to feed the expanding Canadian livestock industry.

AGRICULTURE

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Institute for International Economics | www.iie.com

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