The Congress decided that CCP strength still lay with the labor movement, a movement said to be entering a new phase that would offer opportunities for expansion. Although the labor movement was seen as the key component in the nationalist revolution, the resolution adopted made it clear that preservation of its independence was most important. In fact, the Guangzhou communists were criticized for allowing the labor movement to lose its independence, a problem that was claimed to have been corrected at the May 1924 enlarged CEC meeting.
The creation of a strong, independent labor organization would ensure CCP dominance of the nationalist movement as it was, by self-definition, "the leader of the working-class." Thus, the CCP's primary task was to organize labor unions and promote class-based propaganda. The use of party branches at the work place was stressed. They were to ensure that party policy was carried out and to guide work in the labor unions and the small groups in the factories. In future, all factories etc. would be able to form a party branch where there were three or more members.
The development of the peasant movement in areas under GMD control in south China caused the Congress to adopt the party's most extensive resolution on the peasantry to date. However, it still did not provide a concrete plan of action. The special place of the peasantry in the Chinese revolutionary movement was acknowledged and its participation was seen as vital for success. While expressing support for GMD policy in the south, the resolution criticized the GMD for using the peasantry for its own ends. It claimed that the GMD organized peasant associations in areas where it needed their support but did not force landlords to give way to the peasantry nor did the GMD sufficiently protect the economic and political rights of the peasantry. The resolution provides a good example of the ambiguity concerning work within the united front. At one moment it is calling for the use of the GMD's organization, the next it is chiding the GMD and then calls for independent action. It is not surprising that some comrades were confused about the exact relationship of their work to that of the GMD. The resolution also criticized the policy of the Guangzhou communists. It claimed that their stress on the role of the GMD had caused the peasantry to doubt its own strength and to fail to understand its own class position. This had caused the peasantry to become disappointed in the CCP.
The CCP continued to take organization seriously and stated that this was the most important question concerning the party's "survival and development." Party leadership hoped that improvements in organization would enable the party to break out from being merely a collection of "small propaganda groups." In particular, the "Resolution on Organization" stressed the role of the branches as the basic units of party organization. To recruit more workers and peasants, membership procedures were to be relaxed. In future, it would not be necessary for prospective members to pass through the SYL and "class conscious elements" would be able to join the party directly. The party was to be enlarged at the local level by changing the requirement that five members were necessary to form a cell (xiaozu) to only three being needed to form a branch (zhibu). This emphasis on the branch marked an attempt to change the party from being area based to being occupation based. To control party activities in other organizations such as the GMD, the formation of party fractions (dangtuan) was confirmed.