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The Congress provided a set of resolutions and organizational changes that it hoped would help the party cope with the expected upsurge in the revolutionary movement. Despite the collapse of the talks in Beijing and Sun Yat-sen's death (12 March 1925), events took an even more radical turn than expected. The May 30th Movement (1925) witnessed a massive upsurge in nationalist sentiment and provided the party with a chance for rapid expansion, particularly in urban Shanghai. However, the movement brought with it new headaches as the Party Center tried to grapple with the new situation and the influx of members. The period from 1925 to April 1927 marked a high point in the development of influence in the labor movement and with the development of communist-influenced organizations in Shanghai. Crucial in pushing CCP influence in the labor movement was Shanghai University that had been established in October 1922. Under the subsequent protection of the united front, key figures such as Deng Zhongxia and Qu Qiubai were able to train cadre for the labor movement. Shanghai University was also important for the mobilization of women’s organizations during the May 30th Movement.

The May 30th Movement had its origins in a February 1925 strike against the Japanese- owned textile mills in Shanghai. After simmering for a few months, it exploded on 15 May when a factory guard killed one of the strikers and wounded others. Incidents spread as did injuries and arrests and on 28 May, the CCP together with other organizations called for coordinated demonstrations to take place on 30 May. International Settlement police opened fire on the demonstration killing ten and wounding and arresting many others. In an attempt to gain control of the movement, the CCP set up the Shanghai General Labor Union. It was established on 1 June and was chaired by Li Lisan. The Movement in Shanghai continued until July when it began to wind down and by mid- September the General Labor Union had been forcibly closed down and the CCP leadership had gone underground. The movement spread to other cities and caused the Hong Kong-Guangzhou strike that lasted from June 1925 until October 1926. Communist influence spread as a result of the Movement and party membership increased from 994 at the time of the Congress to some 3,000 in October 1925.

The CCP responded by trying to expand its role and to transform itself from a "small group" into a "central mass political party." A CEC meeting in October 1925 decided to relax membership procedures even further. Knowledge of marxism was no longer required while anyone who was a factory worker was considered a natural member. However, collaboration with the GMD was to be continued but it was stated that now the GMD contained only a left and a right wing and that the right wing was becoming increasingly reactionary. The meeting also addressed the question of the peasantry at some length. The proclamation for the peasantry stated that the fundamental solution to the problems they faced was land confiscation. However, only the land of big landlords, warlords, bureaucrats and the churches was to be taken. An eight-point program for the peasantry’s minimum demands was outlined. It was based on experience in the south, and developed the ideas put forward earlier by Chen Duxiu in November 1922. It called for recognition of peasant associations and the establishment of elected self-governing bodies in the countryside, the setting of maximum rents and minimal grain prices by the associations and self-governing bodies, the provision of interest-free loans to the

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