not surprising that the new Chinese leadership would seize upon any sign of heightened activity as the arrival of a new crest.
The notion of the movement developing in waves was not an innovation of the Congress but had been put forward by the ECCI in February 1928. While criticizing the previous "excesses", in particular the Guangzhou Commune, the ECCI maintained that a further revolutionary upsurge was possible. However, such upsurges would be irregular and thus the party must take care not to allow the movement to run out of control. Instead the mass organizations were to be built up to ensure coordination.
A major contribution of the Congress was its designation of the soviet as the governmental system to be established in the wake of the armed uprisings to replace the old political system. While the Congress saw this as the form of government throughout the entire country, in practice it meant the soviet would rule the rural base areas. While the Congress retained the intention of recapturing the CCP’s urban base, social reality led to a greater emphasis being placed on the revolutionary role of the peasantry. The party was to form a united front with as many of the peasantry as possible, including middle peasants. Rich peasants were to be "neutralized" and the poor peasants were to be placed in charge of the peasant associations. The Congress stressed the importance of guerrilla warfare carried out by the peasantry. It was hoped that this would lead to a steady expansion of rural reform and the worker-peasant revolutionary Red Army. However, it was clearly stated that the peasantry would remain under the hegemony of the proletariat.
The Congress also installed a new leadership with a new CC of 23 members and 13 alternates and a Central Control Commission with three members and two alternates. The new Politburo elected by the CC had seven full members: Su Zhaozheng (22 votes), Xiang Ying (22), Xiang Zhongfa (21), Zhou Enlai (21), Qu Qiubai (16), Cai Hesen (16), and Zhang Guotao (10). There were seven alternates, one of whom was Li Lisan. The Standing Committee comprised Xiang Zhongfa, Zhou Enlai, Su Zhaozheng, Xiang Ying, and Cai Hesen with Li Lisan, Xu Xigen, and Yang Yin as alternates. Xiang Zhongfa was elected Chair of the Politburo and the CC. Despite the claim that party congresses would be held every year, a congress would not be held again until 1945.
On the surface, the Sixth Congress appeared to have produced an appropriate long-term program. In reality, it presented the CCP with an intractable problem. The central issue of the revolution was to be the agrarian question while it was of paramount importance that the CCP recapture its proletarian base in the urban areas. The chance of fulfilling these objectives was further complicated by the more radical turn of events both in China and the Soviet Union shortly after the Congress.
In China, the situation was improving somewhat for the CCP. In the urban areas, the CCP was slowly recovering from the GMD suppression and failed uprisings, while in the rural areas from 1928 on there was a steady growth of the Red Army and the soviet areas. The latter were beginning to emerge as dynamic new forces in the communist movement. However, the socio-economic conditions varied from soviet to soviet resulting in different policies and compromises with local groups to ensure survival.