at $2.61 million. Prior to 1991, tourism was the primary earner of foreign exchange.
3.0 Tourism Market Assessment
Pohnpei has experienced considerable growth in tourism activity between 1981 and 1992 with an average annual compounded growth rate of 9.5 percent. In 1992, there were 12,212 visitor arrivals, the largest group being from Japan (40.2 percent), followed by the U.S. (33.7 percent). Tourists on pleasure trips comprised the largest percentage of these visitors, followed by those who were on private or government business. In order to maximize its advantages based on available tourism attractions, Pohnpei92s marketing strategies have focused on special market segments rather that general interest visitors. Market segments considered appropriate for Pohnpei include the dive market, ecotourism/adventure market, cultural/educational tour market, and sport fishing market. Adequate air transportation service is perhaps the most important element in developing a successful tourism industry in Pohnpei. Continental Air Micronesia is currently the only airline providing regularly scheduled international service with an average annual airlift capacity of 58,000 seats. Another factor discouraging factor in tourism development is the relatively high air fares to and from Pohnpei. There are no scheduled international passenger ship operations at present.
4.0 Tourism Infrastructure Assessment
Pohnpei’s 1993 hotel inventory listed 16 hotels with a total of 232 rooms. Most of the hotels were family- or owner-operated, ranging in size from 7 to 39 rooms and located in the Kolonia area. In the absence of any government planning, the hotel room inventory has increased, resulting in relatively low occupancy rates in the 45 to 50 percent range between 1988 and 1991. With another 186 rooms under construction in 1993 and reported investor interest in building resort complexes ranging from 100 to 300 rooms, adverse impacts on the existing hotels are expected lowering occupancy levels considerably. Pohnpei’ current hotel rooms are generally in need of upgrading in terms of facilities and services to a standard which would be considered suitable for most international tourists. Pohnpei’ land zoning laws have been slow in developing. Classification plans for tourism development involve three types of zones: 1) hotels, motels, and apartments; 2) resorts; and 3) tourism activity sites. Other zoning classifications such as 93reserved land94 impact on tourism because they provide land uses that can be shared among both residents and visitors. Most of the land on Pohnpei is either state-owned or controlled by a few private landowners. National law dictates that land ownership be limited to ESM citizens, and this restriction has hampered foreign investment attempts.
Pohnpei’s infrastructure is improving, but still largely inadequate to meet present and expected future demand. Both Pohnpei’s single-terminal airport and primary seaport are located just outside the town of Kolonia on Dekehtek Island. Plans for further facility development include an expansion (or possible relocation) of the airport and a marina. Most of Pohnpei’s paved roads lie in or around Kolonia and are in need of repair. Work is presently underway to complete the paving of a 50.4 mile circular road around the island. Virtually all of Pohnpei’s electricity is supplied by imported fossil fuels. Kolonia’s water