isomer are indicative of an EC50 for micro-organisms above 100 mg/L.
For the year 2004 the global market for DL-lactone was estimated to be 1000-5000 tonnes. DL-lactone is used in the synthesis of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. At the production site of the main producer in UK DL-lactone is further processed on-site in closed systems in the synthesis of Calcium D-Pantothenate. Only a small amount (<0.5%) is isolated and sold to a third party. According to the product registers in Nordic Countries (Norway, Sweden and Denmark) and in Switzerland DL-lactone is not used in industrial and consumer products.
Occupational exposure may occur during synthesis, mainly through completion of process sampling and potentially during drumming-off operations.
Based on a production mass balance at the manufacturing plant of the main producer in UK for the year 2004, a maximum of 0.4 % of the total produced DL-lactone is lost to the waste water and a maximum of 0.75 % to the distillation residues which are incinerated. Waste water is treated in an on-site wastewater treatment plant. Since DL-lactone is ready biodegrable releases to surface water with effluents will be low.
RECOMMENDATION AND RATIONALE FOR THE RECOMMENDATION AND NATURE OF FURTHER WORK RECOMMENDED
Human Health: The chemical is currently of low priority for further work. The chemical possesses properties indicating a hazard for human health (skin and eye irritation). These hazards do not warrant further work as they are related to reversible effects. They should nevertheless be noted by chemical safety professionals and users.
Environment: The chemical is currently of low priority for further work because of its low hazard profile.