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Presently, only one third of the metropolitan area is covered with a piped sewerage system and there is treatment facility for the two-third of the wastewater generated. The remaining wastewater still goes untreated into surface waters. In comparison to sewerage, about 52% of the total area is provided with a well-developed water supply system. BWSSB is undertaking various projects to enhance its water supply and sewerage network and improve upon the services offered. Caution is required when considering adequacy figures, as there remains an important degree of qualitative judgment involved in deciding on the adequacy of a particular type of sanitation technology for a given case. The choice of the technology to be used is largely determined by the size of the population to be served, the required investment and whether the commercial private sector or an NGO/CBO is involved.

Table 4 Wastewater and Sanitation Technologies

Case

Dominant Technology

(% coverage)

Second most important technology (%)

Bangalore

Household and community latrines, conventional sewers, secondary treatment, liquid discharged to open water, sludge dried and retained (67)

Household and community latrines, controlled disposal to soils

(23)

Another issue is that of the integrity and effective operation of the constituting components in the chain of conveyance, treatment and disposal. This issue is best be illustrated by the Bangalore case, where the capacity of waste water treatment plants approximately equals the volume of waterborne sewage, but remains largely unused because of the huge losses in the sewer system.

Table 5 Models for service provision

Case

Dominantarrangement

(% coverage)

Next largest Arrangement (% )

Bangalore

Corporatized Utility

(53)

Households

(32)

Table 6 Cost recovery methods used in communal systems (percentage covered)

Case

Communal system

User revenues adequate?

Dominant form of Cost Recovery

Bangalore

53

Adequate

Metered: Progressive volumetric tariffs differentiated by user group

Table7 Separate or joint water and sanitation management of services

Case

Predominant Arrangement

Next largest Arrangement

Bangalore

Corporatized Utility

Joint Management

Households

Institutional options

An array of corporate and community approaches is being increasingly used to deal with these issues. Initiatives by Community-Based Organisations (CBOs) are assisted by large NGOs. Likewise, in Bangalore, a remarkable 15% of the population makes use

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