X hits on this document

PDF document

11 March 2011 - page 14 / 46





14 / 46

Guide to Calculating Mobility Management Benefits Victoria Transport Policy Institute

Transportation Safety Traffic crashes cause huge economic costs, including deaths, disabilities, and injuries, and resulting productivity losses and medical expenses, plus costs for property damages, emergency services and traffic delay.

Transportation Safety Benefits Subcategories

  • Reduced traffic fatalities, disabilities and injuries (including suffering and loss of companionship).

  • Reduced productivity losses (from deaths and disabilities).

  • Reduced medical and rehabilitation expenses.

  • Reduced property damages.

  • Reduced emergency services.

  • Reduced traffic delay.

Mobility management strategies tend to reduce total crashes (Litman and Fitzroy, 2005). Shifts from driving to public transit tend to reduce crashes. Shifts to nonmotorized modes may increase per-mile risk to people who shift, but reduce risk to other road users, and tends to reduce per capita crash rates. Smart growth strategies that increase land use density can increase crash frequency but reduce severity, reducing total injuries and deaths. Pay-As-You-Drive vehicle insurance and strategies that reduce traffic speeds are particularly effective at reducing crash costs.

Table 9

Safety Benefit Effectiveness

Most Effective

Transit improvements Rideshare programs Traffic calming Traffic speed management PAYD vehicle insurance Carfree planning Transit oriented developme

Taxi service improvements



Moderate Effects Marketing programs

Commute trip reduction programs & incentives

School and campus transport management

HOV priority Carsharing


Location-efficient development

Least Effective

Freight transport management

Parking management & pricing

Fuel tax increases

Walking & cycling improvements


Negative Impacts

Smart growth land use development, which increases traffic density, may increase crash rates per vehicle-mile, although per capita crash rates and severity tend to decline due to reduced automobile travel distances and speeds.

Congestion pricing This table identifies how various mobility management strategies reduce traffic accident costs.

Conventional transport planning gives consideration to crash risk measured per unit of travel (per 100 million vehicle-miles or billion vehicle-kilometers), but tends to ignore increased mileage as a crash risk factor and mobility management as a safety strategy. Economists have developed monetized estimates of traffic accident costs and the value of reducing crashes. Many transportation agencies use these values for evaluating traffic safety improvements (Delucchi 1998; Litman 2009). They typically estimate crash costs at 5¢ to 15¢ per automobile mile.


Document info
Document views165
Page views166
Page last viewedThu Jan 19 10:43:52 UTC 2017