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Guide to Calculating Mobility Management Benefits Victoria Transport Policy Institute

Introduction Mobility Management (also called Transportation Demand Management or TDM) refers to policies and programs that change travel behavior to increase transport system efficiency (Schreffler 2000; Cairns, et al. 2004; USEPA 2004; VTPI 2006). Table 1 lists various mobility management strategies. These strategies cause various types of travel changes including shifts in mode (from driving to walking, cycling, ridesharing, public transit, etc.), destination (closer rather than more distant services), time (from peak to off- peak), and frequency (consolidating trips and substituting telework for physical travel). Some increase land use accessibility (such as locating services closer to residential areas).

Improves Transport

Land Use




Table 1

Mobility Management Strategies (VTPI, 2006)

Implementation Programs

Transit improvements

Walking & cycling improvements

Rideshare programs HOV priority Flextime Carsharing


Congestion pricing Distance-based fees

Commuter financial incentives

Parking pricing Parking regulations Fuel tax increases

Transit encouragement

Smart growth

Transit oriented development

Location-efficient development

Parking management Carfree planning

Traffic calming

Commute trip reduction programs

School and campus transport management

Freight transport management

Tourist transport management

Mobility management

Taxi service improvements Guaranteed ride home

marketing programs

Transport planning reforms

This table lists various mobility management strategies. Many include subcategories.

There are many justifications for mobility management. It is a cost effective approach to reducing problem such as traffic congestion, pollution emissions or inadequate mobility for non-drivers. It can reduce costs to governments and developers. It can support strategic planning objectives such as urban redevelopment, openspace preservation, energy conservation and economic development. It includes strategies that users value such as telework and nonmotorized transport improvements. Some travel changes improve public fitness and health. Many mobility management strategies are market reforms that correct existing market distortions and so increase economic efficiency.

However, conventional transportation planning tends to focus on just one or two of these benefits, such as congestion or pollution reductions, and so tends to undervalue mobility management. More comprehensive analysis, which considers a broader range of impacts, can justify greater implementation of mobility management solutions. This paper provides guidance for comprehensive economic evaluation of mobility management policies and programs, to help identify the optimal approach to improve transportation.


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