Guide to Calculating Mobility Management Benefits Victoria Transport Policy Institute
Existing Literature Several categories of technical literature relate to mobility management evaluation. There are many publications concerning transport project evaluation produced by professional organizations such as AASHTO (2003). Computer models (such as MicroBenCost and HDM-4) are available for evaluating roadway investments, for example, to determine the optimal route for a new highway or when a dirt road should be paved.
Several studies and guides describe evaluation of public transit improvements (ECONorthwest and PBQD, 2002; Litman, 2005; “Transit Evaluation,” VTPI, 2006) pricing reforms (Pricing Evaluation, VTPI, 2006), commute trip reduction programs (Concas and Winters 2007; Modarres 1993; “Commute Trip Reduction,” VTPI 2006), and land use policy reforms, such as smart growth and transit oriented development (Seggerman, et al, 2005; “Land Use Evaluation,” VTPI 2006). Another set of literature examines the degree to which various mobility management programs can help address specific planning objectives, such as reducing traffic congestion (ITE 1997) or air pollution (USEPA 2004).
There is extensive literature on some transportation costs, such as congestion, accidents and pollution (“Transportation Costs and Benefits,” VTPI 2006). A few studies provide a framework for evaluating the cost savings and benefits of vehicle travel reductions (Delucchi 1998; Litman 2009; ExternE [http://externe.jrc.es]; UNITE [www.its.leeds.ac.uk/projects/unite]). The Transportation Cost Analysis Spreadsheet (www.vtpi.org/tca/tca.xls) provides cost estimates for various modes in a format that can be used to calculate the cost savings from automobile travel reductions and mode shifts.
A growing body of literature concerns how various factors affect travel behavior (Pratt 2007). Transportation elasticity information which predict how prices affect travel behavior (“Transportation Elasticities,” VTPI 2006). Integrated transportation/land use models which predict the effects of land use changes on travel behavior and how this can change land use patterns (“Land Use Impacts on Travel,” VTPI 2006). Because many mobility management programs involve innovative and multiple strategies, conventional models do not predict their travel impacts accurately, although this is improving with newer models (“Transport Model Improvements,” VTPI 2006). Specialized programs, such as the Commuter Model (USEPA 2005), and the TRIMMS Model (Concas and Winters 2007) can help predict the impacts of certain mobility management strategies. The Mobility Management Evaluation Spreadsheet (www.vtpi.org/mm_eval.xls) calculates the vehicle travel reductions, energy savings and emission reductions caused by various combinations of mobility management strategies, taking into account the portion of travel they affect.