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CONTENTS

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

Preface Authors List of Contributors and Reviewers List of Abbreviations Acknowledgments

Electrolytic Cell Development 4

The Ideal Electrochemical Cell Process Developments 5 Membrane Cell 5 Diaphragm Cells 8 Mercury Cells 11 Process Diagram for a Typical Chlor-Alkali Plant 4

Other Chlorine Manufacturing Processes 18

15

1

Chlorine: History, Manufacture, Properties, Hazards, and Uses Historical Background 1

Elemental Chlorine 1 Chlorine Gas 1 Chlorine Liquid 2

Manufacture of Chlorine

2

History 2 Electrolytic Processes

3

Salt Process 18 HCl Oxidation Processes 18 Electrolysis of Hydrochloric Acid Solutions

20

Impurities in the Manufacture of Chlorine 20

Historical Background 20 Consequences of Impurities 22 Nitrogen Trichloride in Liquid Chlorine Silica Contamination 24

23

xxvii xxix xxxi xxxiii xxxix

1

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