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CONTENTS

Chlorine Dioxide Introduction 700

Historical Background European Practice 701 Other Uses 702

700

Chemical and Biologic Properties

703

Chemical Properties 703 Chemistry in Potable Water Treatment Selectivity as an Oxidant 705 Germicidal Efficiency 705 Inactivation of Viruses and Bacteria Encysted Parasites 711 704 706

Equipment and Generation 712

Purity 713 Commercial Generation Methods and Chemistry

713

Acid–Chlorite Solution 714 Chlorine Solution–Chlorite Solution

717

Three-Chemical Systems (D. A. Gates, pers. comm.)

718

Chlorine Gas–Chlorite Solution 719 Chlorine Gas–Solid Chlorite 720 Electrochemical 720 Chlorate-Based Systems 722 Chemical Feed Design Considerations

722

Batch Tank 723 Storage 723 Purity Specification

723

Bench-Scale Generation of ClO2

724

Potassium Persulfate–Chlorite Solution

724

Sulfuric Acid–Chlorite Solution

725

Sodium Hypochlorite–Hydrochloric Acid–

Chlorite Solution 725 Chlorine Gas–Solid Chlorite 726

Use in Drinking Water and Wastewater Disinfection 727

Drinking Water Primary Disinfection Application Points Contactor Design Criteria 728 Diffusers and Injectors 728 Exposure to Sunlight 728 DBPs 729 Chlorite 729 Chlorate 731 THMs and HAAs 734 Secondary Disinfection 734 Objectionable Taste and Odor Formation 734

727

700

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