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CONTENTS

Ultraviolet Light Introduction 893

Wastewater Applications in Europe 893 UV Applications in North America 894 Drinking Water Applications in the United States

896

Chemical and Biological Properties 897

UV Light 897 Microbial Inactivation Mechanisms 898 Microbial UV Sensitivity 899 Microbial Repair 899 UV Dose 902

Guidelines 904

USEPA’s Ultraviolet Disinfection Guidance Manual NWRI/AwwaRF’s Ultraviolet Disinfection Guidelines

904

for Drinking Water and Water Reuse 907 USEPA’s Design Manual for Municipal Wastewater

Disinfection 908

UV Equipment 910

UV Lamps 910 UV Reactors 921 Ballasts 924 Lamp Sleeves 925 UV Sensors 926 Cleaning Systems 927 Online UVT Monitors 928 Temperature Sensors/Water Level Probes

928

Water Quality Issues 929

UV Transmittance 929 Particles/Suspended Solids

929

UV System Sizing Tools

932

UV System Validation

932

Fouling

931

Nonbiological, Mathematical-Based Modeling Emerging Methods 959

955

Operation and Maintenance Activities 961

Maintenance Activities 961 Operational Issues 964

Troubleshooting Strategies 965

Process Control Modifications 965 Electrical System Modifications 965 Mechanical System Modifications 966

xxv

893

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