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CONTENTS

Methane 148 Nitrite 148

Chlorine Demand 149 Germicidal Significance of Chlorine Residuals

151

Mechanisms of Inactivation Hypochlorous Acid 153 Hypochlorite Ion 154 Chloramines 155

152

References 161

Determination of Chlorine Residuals in Water and Wastewater Treatment

Historical Background 174

The Early Years 174 Following Discovery of the Breakpoint Phenomenon Recent Developments 179

175

General Considerations 179

Colorimetric and Titrimetric Methods Common Interferences 180 Organic Nitrogen Interference 182 Recommendations for Method Selection 180 184

Detailed Descriptions of Individual Methods

187

Amperometric Titration 187

Principles of Titrator Operation 188 The Single-Indicator-Electrode Titrator 188 The Dual-Indicator-Electrode Titrator 191 Operating Characteristics 193 Chemistry of the Amperometric Method 194 Preparation and Procedures for Titration 195 Precision and Detection Limits 200 Low-Level Amperometric Titrations 200 Free Chlorine Residuals at Short Contact Times 201 Determination of Residual Chlorine in Wastewater Effluents

DPD Method 208

DPD Colorimetric Method 210 DPD–FAS Titrimetric Method 211

FACTS (Syringaldazine) Method 214 Iodometric Method I 215

Procedure for Standardizing Chlorine Solutions

217

Iodometric Method II (Wastewater) 217 Iodometric Electrode Method 218 Leuco Crystal Violet (LCV) Method 219

202

174

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