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CONTENTS

xi

Methyl Orange (MO) Method Orthotolidine Method 221

220

Interfering Substances 221 OTA Method 222 Drop Dilution Method 222

References 223

Chlorination of Potable Water Microbes in Water Supplies 230

230

Surface Water and Springs 230 Groundwater 230

Waterborne Diseases 231 Chlorine as a Disinfectant 232

Use as a Biocide 232 Use to Inactivate Protozoa 235 Use as a Virucide 235 Consensus Indicator Organism 236

Disinfection Requirements under (Provisions of the) Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) 236

SWTR 236 Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (IESWTR) Stage 1 DBPR 239 Long-Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule

238

(LT1ESWTR) 239 Long-Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule

(LT2ESWTR) 239 GWR 240

Disinfection of Drinking Water with Clorine

240

Historical Background 241 Points of Application 242 Types of Chemical 243 DBP 243 Trihalomethanes (THMs) 243 Haloacetic Acids (HAAs) 244 Total Organic Halides (TOX) Bromate 245 Chlorine Demand 245 Chlorination–Dechlorination 244 247 248 Disinfection with Chloramines

Historical Background 248 The Ammonia–Chlorine Process 250 Basic Chemistry of Ammonia N Reactions with Chlorine

251

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