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the collation of a Psalter is in truth more important than that of a

Book of Hours.  It will be well for a student, therefore, to begin

with Psalters, as he can then get up the Hours in their elementary

form.  I subjoin a bibliographical account of both kinds of MSS.  In

the famous Exhibition at the Burlington Club in 1874, a number of

volumes was arranged to show how persistent one type of the age

could be.  The form of the decorations, and the arrangement of the

figures in borders, once invented, was fixed for generations.  In a

Psalter of the thirteenth century there was, under the month of

January in the calendar, a picture of a grotesque little figure

warming himself at a stove.  The hearth below, the chimney-pot

above, on which a stork was feeding her brood, with the intermediate

chimney shaft used as a border, looked like a scientific preparation

from the interior anatomy of a house of the period.  In one of the

latest of the MSS. exhibited on that occasion was the self-same

design again.  The little man was no longer a grotesque, and the

picture had all the high finish and completeness in drawing that we

might expect in the workmanship of a contemporary of Van Eyck.

There was a full series of intermediate books, showing the gradual

growth of the picture.

With regard to chronology, it may be roughly asserted that the

earliest books which occur are Psalters of the thirteenth century.

Next to them come Bibles, of which an enormous issue took place

before the middle of the fourteenth century.  These are followed by

an endless series of books of Hours, which, as the sixteenth century

is reached, appear in several vernacular languages.  Those in

English, being both very rare and of great importance in liturgical

history, are of a value altogether out of proportion to the beauty

of their illuminations.  Side by side with this succession are the

Evangelistina, which, like the example mentioned above, are of the

highest merit, beauty, and value; followed by sermons and homilies,

and the Breviary, which itself shows signs of growth as the years go

on.  The real Missal, with which all illuminated books used to be

confounded, is of rare occurrence, but I have given a collation of

it also.  Besides these devotional or religious books, I must

mention chronicles and romances, and the semi-religious and moral

allegories, such as the "Pelerinage de l'Ame," which is said to have

given Bunyan the machinery of the "Pilgrim's Progress."  Chaucer's

and Gower's poetry exists in many MSS., as does the "Polychronicon"

of Higden; but, as a rule, the mediaeval chronicles are of single

origin, and were not copied.  To collate MSS. of these kinds is

quite impossible, unless by carefully reading them, and seeing that

the pages run on without break.

I should advise the young collector who wishes to make sure of

success not to be too catholic in his tastes at first, but to

confine his attention to a single period and a single school.  I

should also advise him to make from time to time a careful catalogue

of what he buys, and to preserve it even after he has weeded out

certain items.  He will then be able to make a clear comparative

estimate of the importance and value of his collection, and by

studying one species at a time, to become thoroughly conversant with

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