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to appreciate the full value of Flaxman's drawings, they should be

studied in the collections at University College, the Royal Academy,

and elsewhere. {9}

Flaxman and Blake had few imitators.  But a host of clever

designers, such as Cipriani, Angelica Kauffmann, Westall, Uwins,

Smirke, Burney, Corbould, Dodd, and others, vied with the popular

Stothard in "embellishing" the endless "Poets," "novelists," and

"essayists" of our forefathers.  Some of these, and most of the

recognised artists of the period, lent their aid to that boldly-

planned but unhappily-executed "Shakespeare" of Boydell,--"black and

ghastly gallery of murky Opies, glum Northcotes, straddling

Fuselis," as Thackeray calls it.  They are certainly not enlivening-

-those cumbrous "atlas" folios of 1803-5, and they helped to ruin

the worthy alderman.  Even courtly Sir Joshua is clearly ill at ease

among the pushing Hamiltons and Mortimers; and, were it not for the

whimsical discovery that Westall's "Ghost of Caesar" strangely

resembles Mr. Gladstone, there would be no resting-place for the

modern student of these dismal masterpieces.  The truth is, Reynolds

excepted, there were no contemporary painters strong enough for the

task, and the honours of the enterprise belong almost exclusively to

Smirke's "Seven Ages" and one or two plates from the lighter

comedies.  The great "Bible" of Macklin, a rival and even more

incongruous publication, upon which some of the same designers were

employed, has fallen into completer oblivion.  A rather better fate

attended another book of this class, which, although belonging to a

later period, may be briefly referred to here.  The "Milton" of John

Martin has distinct individuality, and some of the needful qualities

of imagination.  Nevertheless, posterity has practically decided

that scenic grandeur and sombre effects alone are not a sufficient

pictorial equipment for the varied story of "Paradise Lost."

It is to Boydell of the Shakespeare gallery that we owe the "Liber

Veritatis" of Claude, engraved by Richard Earlom; and indirectly,

since rivalry of Claude prompted the attempt, the famous "Liber

Studiorum" of Turner.  Neither of these, however--which, like the

"Rivers of France" and the "Picturesque Views in England and Wales"

of the latter artist, are collections of engravings rather than

illustrated books--belongs to the present purpose.  But Turner's

name may fitly serve to introduce those once familiar "Annuals" and

"Keepsakes," that, beginning in 1823 with Ackermann's "Forget-me-

Not," enjoyed a popularity of more than thirty years.  Their general

characteristics have been pleasantly satirised in Thackeray's

account of the elegant miscellany of Bacon the publisher, to which

Mr. Arthur Pendennis contributed his pretty poem of "The Church

Porch."  His editress, it will be remembered, was the Lady Violet

Lebas, and his colleagues the Honourable Percy Popjoy, Lord Dodo,

and the gifted Bedwin Sands, whose "Eastern Ghazuls" lent so special

a distinction to the volume in watered-silk binding.  The talented

authors, it is true, were in most cases under the disadvantage of

having to write to the plates of the talented artists, a practice

which even now is not extinct, though it is scarcely considered

favourable to literary merit.  And the real "Annuals" were no

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