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exception to the rule.  As a matter of fact, their general literary

merit was not obtrusive, although, of course, they sometimes

contained work which afterwards became famous.  They are now so

completely forgotten and out of date, that one scarcely expects to

find that Wordsworth, Coleridge, Macaulay, and Southey, were among

the occasional contributors.  Lamb's beautiful "Album verses"

appeared in the "Bijou," Scott's "Bonnie Dundee" in the "Christmas

Box," and Tennyson's "St. Agnes' Eve" in the "Keepsake."  But the

plates were, after all, the leading attraction.  These, prepared for

the most part under the superintendence of the younger Heath, and

executed on the steel which by this time had supplanted the old

"coppers," were supplied by, or were "after," almost every

contemporary artist of note.  Stothard, now growing old and past his

prime, Turner, Etty, Stanfield, Leslie, Roberts, Danby, Maclise,

Lawrence, Cattermole, and numbers of others, found profitable labour

in this fashionable field until 1856, when the last of the "Annuals"

disappeared, driven from the market by the rapid development of wood

engraving.  About a million, it is roughly estimated, was squandered

in producing them.

In connection with the "Annuals" must be mentioned two illustrated

books which were in all probability suggested by them--the "Poems"

and "Italy" of Rogers.  The designs to these are chiefly by Turner

and Stothard, although there are a few by Prout and others.

Stothard's have been already referred to; Turner's are almost

universally held to be the most successful of his many vignettes.

It has been truly said--in a recent excellent life of this artist

{10}--that it would be difficult to find in the whole of his works

two really greater than the "Alps at Daybreak," and the "Datur Hora

Quieti," in the former of these volumes.  Almost equally beautiful

are the "Valombre Falls" and "Tornaro's misty brow."  Of the "Italy"

set Mr. Ruskin writes:- "They are entirely exquisite; poetical in

the highest and purest sense, exemplary and delightful beyond all

praise."  To such words it is not possible to add much.  But it is

pretty clear that the poetical vitality of Rogers was secured by

these well-timed illustrations, over which he is admitted by his

nephew Mr. Sharpe to have spent about 7000 pounds, and far larger

sums have been named by good authorities.  The artist received from

fifteen to twenty guineas for each of the drawings; the engravers

(Goodall, Miller, Wallis, Smith, and others), sixty guineas a plate.

The "Poems" and the "Italy," in the original issues of 1830 and

1834, are still precious to collectors, and are likely to remain so.

Turner also illustrated Scott, Milton, Campbell, and Byron; but this

series of designs has not received equal commendation from his

greatest eulogist, who declares them to be "much more laboured, and

more or less artificial and unequal."  Among the numerous imitations

directly induced by the Rogers books was the "Lyrics of the Heart,"

by Alaric Attila Watts, a forgotten versifier and sometime editor of

"Annuals," but it did not meet with similar success.

Many illustrated works, originating in the perfection and

opportunities of engraving on metal, are necessarily unnoticed in

this rapid summary.  As far, however, as book-illustration is

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