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chiefly from the designs of Thurston and others.  One of the most

successful of his illustrated books is the "Vicar of Wakefield,"

after Mulready, whose simplicity and homely feeling were well suited

to Goldsmith's style.  Another excellent engraver of this date is

Samuel Williams.  There is an edition of Thomson's "Seasons," with

cuts both drawn and engraved by him, which is well worthy of

attention, and (like Thompson and Branston) he was very skilful in

reproducing the designs of Cruikshank.  Some of his best work in

this way is to be found in Clarke's "Three Courses and a Dessert,"

published by Vizetelly in 1830.

From this time forth, however, one hears less of the engraver and

more of the artist.  The establishment of the "Penny Magazine" in

1832, and the multifarious publications of Charles Knight, gave an

extraordinary impetus to wood-engraving.  Ten years later came

"Punch," and the "Illustrated London News," which further increased

its popularity.  Artists of eminence began to draw on or for the

block, as they had drawn, and were still drawing, for the "Annuals."

In 1842-6 was issued the great "Abbotsford" edition of the "Waverley

Novels," which, besides 120 plates, contained nearly 2000 wood-

engravings; and with the "Book of British Ballads," 1843, edited by

Mr. S. C. Hall, arose that long series of illustrated Christmas

books, which gradually supplanted the "Annuals," and made familiar

the names of Gilbert, Birket Foster, Harrison Weir, John Absolon,

and a crowd of others.  The poems of Longfellow, Montgomery, Burns,

"Barry Cornwall," Poe, Miss Ingelow, were all successively

"illustrated."  Besides these, there were numerous selections, such

as Willmott's "Poets of the Nineteenth Century," Wills's "Poets' Wit

and Humour," and so forth.  But the field here grows too wide to be

dealt with in detail, and it is impossible to do more than mention a

few of the books most prominent for merit or originality.  Amongst

these there is the "Shakespeare" of Sir John Gilbert.  Regarded as

an interpretative edition of the great dramatist, this is little

more than a brilliant tour de force; but it is nevertheless

infinitely superior to the earlier efforts of Kenny Meadows in 1843,

and also to the fancy designs of Harvey in Knight's "Pictorial

Shakespeare."  The "Illustrated Tennyson" of 1858 is also a

remarkable production.  The Laureate, almost more than any other,

requires a variety of illustrators; and here, for his idylls, he had

Mulready and Millais, and for his romances Rossetti and Holman Hunt.

His "Princess" was afterwards illustrated by Maclise, and his "Enoch

Arden" by Arthur Hughes; but neither of these can be said to be

wholly adequate.  The "Lalla Rookh" of John Tenniel, 1860, albeit

somewhat stiff and cold, after this artist's fashion, is a superb

collection of carefully studied oriental designs.  With these may be

classed the illustrations to Aytoun's "Lays of the Scottish

Cavaliers," by Sir Noel Paton, which have the same finished

qualities of composition and the same academic hardness.  Several

good editions of the "Pilgrim's Progress" have appeared,--notably

those of C. H. Bennett, J. D. Watson, and G. H. Thomas.  Other books

are Millais's "Parables of our Lord," Leighton's "Romola," Walker's

"Philip" and "Denis Duval," the "Don Quixote," "Dante," "La

Fontaine" and other works of Dore, Dalziel's "Arabian Nights,"

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