While the State Party has not submitted a scientific report on the state of conservation of the salmon population across the property, information is provided on the current status of these populations and the impact of poaching. While salmon fishing is prohibited in the two federal protected areas, regulated commercial, sport and indigenous fishing are permitted in the Nature Parks in line with set quotas established by the Federal Fishing Agency (and not by the administration of the Nature Parks) at specific fishing sites. The following specific information is provided:
Kronotsky State Biosphere Reserve. Kronotsky Reserve has one of the largest salmon spawning populations and populations are stable and not adversely affected by over-fishing or poaching.
South-Kamchatka Wildlife Sanctuary. The Sanctuary is located on the largest red salmon spawning area in Asia and the report notes that the annual fish spawning run exceeds 2 million salmon but that poaching pressure is high. The Reserve management has tightened control over the southern boundary of the park.
Nalychevo Nature Park. The park’s rivers are easily accessible by road, which facilitates high levels of poaching. 2008 data from the Kamchatka Fisheries Institute for the Nalychevo River indicate that the volume of poached salmon is between 77% and 93% of the total spawning run. The red salmon population, with 93% illegally poached in 2008, is at greatest risk. The State Party reports that actions implemented to address poaching include prohibition of net fisheries, delegation of power to anti- poaching patrols, and creation of a buffer zone to the west of the Nalychevo river estuary.
Bystrinsky Nature Park & Klyuchevskoy Nature Park. No commercial fishing is undertaken apart from subsistence salmon fishing by indigenous communities to meet their needs. The report indicates that no poaching has been detected in these areas.
South-Kamchatka Nature Park: While in 2009, official salmon catches were relatively low, there are high-levels of red caviar poaching ongoing in the north of the park, and ranger patrols have reported abandoned poaching camps on the eastern coast of the park. Overall, the Kamchatka Fisheries Institute is reported to consider the state of salmon populations in this park relatively satisfactory, despite important poaching levels.
The State Party reports that the number of anti-poaching brigades patrolling the four Nature Parks have increased significantly, and that a range of other measures are being implemented to address poaching, including eliminating the conditions promoting commercial poaching, and deploying additional checkpoints on key roads during the poaching season.
The World Heritage Centre and IUCN welcome the data provided on the salmon populations but note that the report does not show salmon population trends since the time of inscription. However, the data provided indicate the important pressure from salmon poaching in three components of the property. This is an issue of major concern and efforts are needed to further increase the number and frequency of anti-poaching brigades and road checkpoints in these areas. IUCN notes that the anti-poaching brigades were created in part with the financial support of the UNDP/ GEF project scheduled to end in 2010 and WWF. The State Party should be requested to ensure that adequate financing is provided to anti-poaching brigades, in case external funding is running out.
IUCN also received information about the approval of a 2010 driftnet fishing season, with quotas set at approximately 48.5 million pounds of salmon for Russian and Japanese vessels in the Russian Exclusive Economic Zone (including the Kamchatka peninsula and the Bering Sea). This is of concern as it may affect the viability of the salmon populations which return to the property’s watercourses to spawn. The World Heritage Centre and IUCN
State of conservation of World Heritage properties inscribed on the World Heritage List
WHC-10/34.COM/7B.Add, p. 43